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Case Abstracts: 2010 Meeting
Business & Society Ethics

DANIEL AND THE AMBULANCE CHASER
Carolyn Conn, St. Edward’s University

Case Objective
The case can be used at both the undergraduate and graduate levels in courses such as business
ethics and business law. Topics include: ethics, ethical decision-making and “legal vs. ethical,”
moral duties of employees and employers, and stages of moral development. The “level vs.
ethical” discussion can be thought-provoking for both levels. Undergraduates may be likely to
have a first response of: “If it’s legal, it’s ethical.” Graduate students likely will have numerous
examples and recognize the nuances of “legal vs. ethical.” At the graduate level, there should be
a good discussion of the purpose of laws and why they are needed in an orderly society.
The case can be taught in one 90-minute class if students have been assigned in advance to read
the case and develop their own answers to the assigned questions. It likely will not be possible
to cover all the sample questions provided in a 90-minute class. Instructors will need to identify
the topics (and associated questions) they prefer to emphasize. The case could be used as an
exam case to test each student’s ability to identify ethical dilemmas, describe ethical theories,
and recommend a course of action.

Case Synopsis
Daniel Goodman has worked for nearly three years at Steinberg & Huffman, a law firm which
specialized in personal injury cases. Within months of his employment, Goodman was
reassigned by Zack Steinberg (founder and majority shareholder) to bring in new cases in which
someone was injured or died from an accident or faulty product. Steinberg frequently ordered
Goodman to do things which were unsavory, if not unethical. He directed Goodman to meet
with families immediately after their loved ones’ funerals. After an industrial accident in which
a man died who was a war hero, Steinberg told Goodman to wear his own military uniform when
he called on the family. Goodman tolerated Steinberg because of his own plans. He wanted to
save enough money for living expenses and tuition while he attended law school full-time.
After a recent incident associated with an auto accident, the victim’s family filed a complaint
with the State Bar that Goodman violated a law which prohibited attorneys from actively
soliciting business. Steinberg has demanded Goodman sign an affidavit in response to the
complaint. The affidavit was, generally, accurate about Goodman’s actions; he did nothing
wrong. Yet, important facts were omitted about the activities of Steinberg and two others -- all
of whom Goodman felt violated the law. If Goodman signed the affidavit, he would be telling
less than the whole truth. If he did not sign it, Goodman would lose his job and Steinberg could
lose his law license. Everyone at the firm could lose their jobs. What should Goodman do?


The author developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. It is submitted to the North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting,
October 28-30, 2010 in Gatlinburg, TN. All rights are reserved to the author and NACRA. © 2010 by Carolyn
Conn. All names and locations have been disguised. Contact person: Carolyn Conn, School of Management &
Business, St. Edward’s University, 3001 South Congress Avenue, Austin, TX 78704, (512) 233-1422,
caroltc@stedwards.edu.


DOUGHERTY COUNTY SCHOOL SYSTEM (DCSS)’S ONLY FINALIST
Devi Akella, Tammatha Graddic, Victoria Green, Zocko Littleton & Jazmine Williams
Albany State University, GA

Case Objective
This case study discusses the lawsuit filed against the Dougherty County School System (DCSS)
by the county’s three media outlets, WALB News 10, Fox 31 News and the Albany Herald. The
local media of Albany, Georgia files a lawsuit against the board, contending that the “school
board had violated the Georgia Open Records Law by hiding finalists in the School Board’s
search for a superintendent from the public” (Albany Herald, 2010). The case study reviews the
lawsuit and the thoughts of the community as it relates to the lawsuit. The perspectives of the
DCSS’s employees, its staff and the community are analyzed to understand whether the lawsuit
was justified in its claims.
This case study would be useful in looking at issues surrounding nepotism, cronyism and
favoritism within contemporary organizations. The ethical dilemmas, future outcomes and other
problematic concerns surrounding nepotism and cronyism could be discussed. The case study
could be used in advanced undergraduate classes in the subjective areas of Business Ethics and
Organizational Behavior (when teaching organizational ethics and managerial decision making).

Case Synopsis
The Dougherty County School System (DCSS) is the governing body for the school system in
Albany, Georgia. DCSS, with Dr. Sally Whatley, their present superintendent retiring, was faced
with the responsibility of selecting a new candidate suitable for the position. Around 39
candidates applied for the position. DCSS announced its decision to hire Dr. Joshua Murfree for
the position of superintendent. This announcement caused an uproar within the Albany
community. The board had disregarded the community reaction and input. It had failed to make
public, candidate information allowing for a free and fair discussion about the job candidacy and,
feasible applications. Questions regarding the decision of DCSS to move from #1 candidate to
the #36 candidate which, was Dr. Murfree, came to the fore. Why were so many candidates
skipped? Why was Dr. Murfree, who was at the bottom of the list allowed to surpass all other
applicants? WALB TV station and the Albany Herald filed a lawsuit against DCSS accusing the
board for being biased and showing favoritism.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 30-November 1, 2010. All
rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. ©2010 by Devi Akella, Tammatha Graddic, Victoria Green, Zocko
Littleton and Jazmine Williams. Contact person: Devi Akella, College of Business, Albany State University, 504
College Drive, Albany, GA 31705, 229-430-4775, devi.akella@asurams.edu.


DOUGHERTY COUNTY SCHOOL SYSTEM (DCSS)’S ONLY FINALIST
Devi Akella, Tammatha Graddic, Victoria Green, Zocko Littleton & Jazmine Williams
Albany State University, GA

Case Objective
This case study discusses the lawsuit filed against the Dougherty County School System (DCSS)
by the county’s three media outlets, WALB News 10, Fox 31 News and the Albany Herald. The
local media of Albany, Georgia files a lawsuit against the board, contending that the “school
board had violated the Georgia Open Records Law by hiding finalists in the School Board’s
search for a superintendent from the public” (Albany Herald, 2010). The case study reviews the
lawsuit and the thoughts of the community as it relates to the lawsuit. The perspectives of the
DCSS’s employees, its staff and the community are analyzed to understand whether the lawsuit
was justified in its claims.
This case study would be useful in looking at issues surrounding nepotism, cronyism and
favoritism within contemporary organizations. The ethical dilemmas, future outcomes and other
problematic concerns surrounding nepotism and cronyism could be discussed. The case study
could be used in advanced undergraduate classes in the subjective areas of Business Ethics and
Organizational Behavior (when teaching organizational ethics and managerial decision making).

Case Synopsis
The Dougherty County School System (DCSS) is the governing body for the school system in
Albany, Georgia. DCSS, with Dr. Sally Whatley, their present superintendent retiring, was faced
with the responsibility of selecting a new candidate suitable for the position. Around 39
candidates applied for the position. DCSS announced its decision to hire Dr. Joshua Murfree for
the position of superintendent. This announcement caused an uproar within the Albany
community. The board had disregarded the community reaction and input. It had failed to make
public, candidate information allowing for a free and fair discussion about the job candidacy and,
feasible applications. Questions regarding the decision of DCSS to move from #1 candidate to
the #36 candidate which, was Dr. Murfree, came to the fore. Why were so many candidates
skipped? Why was Dr. Murfree, who was at the bottom of the list allowed to surpass all other
applicants? WALB TV station and the Albany Herald filed a lawsuit against DCSS accusing the
board for being biased and showing favoritism.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 30-November 1, 2010. All
rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. ©2010 by Devi Akella, Tammatha Graddic, Victoria Green, Zocko
Littleton and Jazmine Williams. Contact person: Devi Akella, College of Business, Albany State University, 504
College Drive, Albany, GA 31705, 229-430-4775, devi.akella@asurams.edu.


GALAXY SCHOOL: A VOLUNTEER’S DILEMMA
Carolyn Conn & Aundrea Kay Guess
St. Edward’s University

Case Objective
The case was designed for use at both the undergraduate and graduate levels in courses such as
business ethics, accounting ethics, or social entrepreneurship. Major topics include ethics,
ethical decision-making and ethics for volunteers. When faced with an ethical dilemma,
volunteers may have different influences than those experienced by an employee in their work
environment. It is particularly important for students to realize there is often little guidance from
codes of ethics for volunteers in a situation such as what the protagonist faced. The graduate
level will likely be the better place to have discussions about the “duty” of a volunteer and how
much of their time and emotional energy should be given to a good cause.
One 90-minute class should be sufficient for using this case if students have been assigned in
advance to read the case and develop their own answers to the assigned questions. It could be
used as an exam case to test each student’s ability to identify and understand ethical dilemmas,
ethical theories, and problems unique to volunteers in non-profit organizations. Suggested
assignments include asking students to describe the protagonist’s ethical dilemma, alternate
ethical frameworks for decision-making, stakeholders, and a recommended course of action.

Case Synopsis
Mary Barton is facing an ethical dilemma – whether to resign her position as volunteer Treasurer
of Galaxy School, a non-profit elementary school. Shortly after she assumed the duties as
treasurer, the school’s main academic building burned – possibly as the result of arson. During
her entire year of service as treasurer, she has been in a tug-of-war with two other volunteers,
Don and Edith Winchester. The Winchesters became involved in the financial operations of the
school and made changes which Mary knew were not sound business practices and did not
follow required accounting procedures. She was certain their actions were jeopardizing the
school’s financial viability.
The most recent problem for Mary caused by the Winchesters related to donations and pledges
made to the school totaling approximately $250,000. Don refused to give Mary access to
detailed records she needed as documentation for accounting entries and tax reporting. Mary
wanted no part of any questionable accounting practices and she was weary from dealing with
the Winchesters. Yet, she knew Galaxy school needed her expertise. Should she continue as the
volunteer treasurer or should she resign?


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 28-30, 2010, Gatlinburg, TN.
All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Carolyn Conn and Aundrea Kay Guess. All names
and locations have been disguised. Contact person: Carolyn Conn, School of Management & Business, St.
Edward’s University, 3001 South Congress Avenue, Austin, TX 78704, 512-233-1422, caroltc@stedwards.edu.


MONTANNABIS, INC. – POSITIONING FOR SUCCESS
Tom Hinthorne & Patricia Holman
Montana State University-Billings

Case Objective
The authors developed the case for undergraduate and graduate courses in (1) Business,
Government and Society, (2) Small Business Management & Entrepreneurship, and (3) Business
Strategy. The case should enable students to:
1. Analyze the structure – present and future – of an emerging industry facing significant threats.
2. Evaluate entrepreneurial decisions on positioning a business in an emerging industry facing
significant legal, political, and socio-cultural threats.
3. Create and/or analyze the pro forma financial statements (e.g., five-year projected income
statements, balance sheets, and statements of cash flows). Complete the financial analyses
(e.g., payback, net present value, and internal rate of return analyses).
4. Debate corporate social responsibility issues, in this case from the perspective of a business
facing significant opposition and limited public support from local, state, and federal
institutions and business enterprises.

Case Synopsis
In February 2009, Attorney General Eric Holder ordered the Drug Enforcement Agency not to
raid state-approved medical marijuana stores. Presidential Obama felt it was not a wise use of
taxpayer money. By June 2010, the medical marijuana industry was growing rapidly in
Montana. In Billings, Montana, a city of 100,000 people, 57 people had licenses to develop
medical-marijuana stores, and the city council was developing zoning laws.
In April 2010, Mark Higgins opened Montannabis, Inc., a state-of-the-art medical marijuana store
in Billings. In June 2010, Mark gave Liz Bullard, an angel fund manager, and Kathy Riggs, a
commercial loan officer for a bank, a tour of his store. Later, over coffee Liz said, “The big
players are on the sidelines. This is the boom; the shakeout will follow. Then, the serious money
will enter the market.” Kathy Riggs’ loan review board had asked her to analyze the industry in
Montana. After touring Montannabis, Inc., she said to her assistant:
Our loan review board will want an analysis of the industry’s evolving structure
and business strategies. We also need to create Mark’s financial statements and
evaluate the investment potential. Given this is about marijuana, the board will
want an analysis of Mark’s and the industry’s sense of social responsibility. The
board will want to know whether the bank should be financing these businesses.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 28-30, 2010, Gatlinburg, TN.
All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Tom Hinthorne and Patricia Holman. Contact
person: Tom Hinthorne, College of Business, Montana State University-Billings, 1500 University Drive, Billings,
MT 59101-0298, 406-657-2099, thinthorne@msubillings.edu.


THE WORKPLACE THAT KILLS: SUICIDES AT FRANCE TÉLÉCOM
Robert Letovsky
Saint Michael's College

Case Objective
The case is intended to be used in courses which examine how change is introduced and
managed in large organizations; what the obstacles to change are, and how these obstacles can be
dealt with; how societal values and attitudes can impact employee reactions to change; and how
a wide range of stakeholders can impact the change process. It also offers students insight into
another culture’s vision of what management is and does.

Case Synopsis
Over a two-year period beginning in February, 2008, France Télécom (FT) was rocked by a
wave of suicides and attempted suicides among its employees in France. In all, some thirty five
FT employees killed themselves and another thirteen attempted to do so in this time frame. The
suicides occurred as the company was attempting to make a transition from being a sheltered,
government-owned monopoly to a profit and market-driven competitor in the dynamic global
telecommunications business. Part of this transition involved significant reductions in payroll
expenses, and the forced reassignment of thousands of employees from back-office jobs to more
sales oriented positions in the filed. As the suicides continued and the situation became a
national crisis, the company undertook a series of steps to both stop the deaths and preserve its
public image. The case examines possible contributing factors to the suicide wave, including
unique aspects of French culture and French management style. It also tracks the company’s
responses as the situation escalates into a major public relations and political disaster.


The author developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or
ineffective handling of the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were
anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by theNorth American Case Research Association
(NACRA) for its annual meeting, Edgewater Hotel, October 28-30, 2010. All rights are reserved
to the author and NACRA. © 2010 by Robert Letovsky. Contact person: Robert Letovsky, Saint
Michael’s College, One Winooski Park, Colchester, VT 05439, 802-654-2477,
rletovsky@smcvt.edu


Business Policy

BANK OF AMERICA: THE MERRILL LYNCH ACQUISITION
Randall Harris & Jarrett Kotrozo
California State University, Stanislaus

Case Objective
In the depths of the global financial crisis of 2008, a number of companies clung to survival.
Bear Stearns had already been acquired; Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac had been placed into
federal receivership. As the crisis reached a crescendo in September, three companies began to
experience massive losses: Lehman Brothers, Merrill Lynch, and AIG. As Lehman Brothers
struggled for survival on the fateful weekend of September 13th, Merrill Lynch found a lifeline
in a last-minute deal with Bank of America, and AIG was placed into receivership. The failure of
Lehman Brothers the following Monday morning sparked the worst financial crisis on Wall
Street since the Great Depression.
This case tells the inside story of how Merrill Lynch struck a deal with Bank of America during
the financial crisis. Following the agreement, however, massive losses began to appear on the
balance sheet of Merrill Lynch, threatening not just the survival of the firm, but also potentially
jeopardizing Bank of America. This case was designed for graduate or executive education level
courses in Business Policy/Strategic Management and Corporate Governance.

Case Synopsis
This case recounts the details regarding Bank of America's acquisition of Merrill Lynch during
the global financial crisis of 2008-2009. Following the agreement of merger between the two
companies in September of 2008, losses at Merrill Lynch began to mount significantly.
Management at Bank of America, increasingly unnerved at the magnitude of the losses,
attempted to renegotiate the terms of the merger, and at one point discussed the possibility of not
consummating the merger. Under pressure from the US Federal Reserve and Treasury
Department, the merger was completed in January of 2009. The case raises a number of daunting
questions, including whether the company created or destroyed shareholder value by completing
the acquisition, whether key executives and government officials may have overstepped their
bounds to ensure that the merger would be completed, troubling concerns regarding the timing
and handling of the mounting losses at Merrill Lynch after the merger agreement and before the
merger closed, and the potential systemic risk posed by the combination of the two firms.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, October 28-
30, 2010. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. ©2010 by Randall Harris and Jarrett Kotrozo.
Contact person: Randall Harris, California State University, Stanislaus, One University Circle, Turlock, CA, 95382,
209-667-3723, RAHarris@csustan.edu


BRICKHOUSE BREWERY
Stuart Rosenberg, Monmouth University

Case Objective
This case revolves around the decision faced by the general manager of a restaurant as to
whether to implement an uncertain promotional strategy. Among its objectives, the case allow
students to: (1) appreciate the level of preparation and the types of decisions that are involved in
the management of a successful restaurant; (2) value the impact that a service business has on its
location, and vice-versa; and (3) evaluate a business strategy that could upset the equilibrium in
the management of a business. The case writer developed the case primarily for undergraduate
courses in Strategic Management. The case might also be applicable to courses in Marketing.

Case Synopsis
Maud Franklin was the General Manager of the BrickHouse Brewery, a restaurant in Patchogue,
New York. The BrickHouse, opened in 1995, was the largest restaurant in town, having
successfully differentiated itself from its competitors by also serving as a microbrewery and
featuring entertainment six nights per week. Maud effectively managed all aspects of the
restaurant, which included staffing and creating promotional strategies.
The town of Patchogue, once the commercial hub of Long Island’s east end, had gone through a
period of decline in the 1980s and 1990s following the advent of shopping malls. One of the
BrickHouse’s owners presented Maud with an idea for a new promotional strategy that had been
discussed by the Chamber of Commerce. The strategy, called Alive After Five, appeared as
though it could help revive downtown Patchogue, but it was uncertain whether its possible
benefit for the BrickHouse Brewery was sufficient to outweigh its costs–both real and emotional.


The author developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting in Gatlinburg, Tennessee, October 28-
30, 2010. All rights are reserved to the author and NACRA. © 2010 by Stuart Rosenberg, Leon Hess Business
School, Monmouth University, Bey Hall, West Long Branch, NJ 07764-1898, 732-571-3430.


DAKTRONICS: THE NEXT STRATEGIC MOVE
Charles Connely, University of Missouri at Kansas City
Marilyn Taylor, University of Missouri at Kansas City

Case Objective
The Daktronics case was developed for undergraduate or graduate Strategic Management
courses. It provides opportunity for students to undertake application of multiple classic
concepts including SWOTs, Value Chain, RBV, PEST, and Five Forces. Students must address
the delicate balance between strategy and tactics for reducing costs and running lean in a
resource-constrained environment on one hand and positioning the firm to exploit opportunities
and pursue aggressive growth potential on the other.

Case Synopsis
This case describes Daktronics, a forty-year-old firm with 2010 revenues of $383M. The firm
has grown successfully over a long-period, but in the fiscal year just completed experienced
significant loss of sales and its first loss in many year. The firm faces growth difficulties in the
U.S. market given the recession. There is significant opportunity in various countries abroad, but
when and where the company should undertake additional strategic action and how much risk the
firm should embrace is not clear.
Initiated in the Midwest, specifically South Dakota, Daktronics has pursued a conservative
approach in its strategy. The firm has relied heavily on its innovative technologies as it has
pursued a leadership position in its market, i.e., videographic displays with applications across
numerous markets. In particular, Daktronics is known in the sports arena field, but the
applications for its technology are broad. The challenges this leading firm confronts are multiple
and significant.




FLYING TOO LOW: AIR INDIA 2009 & BEYOND
P Rameshan, Indian Institute of Management (IIM) Kozhikode, India

Case Objective
The case shows how Air India (AI), the airline owned by the Government of India and operating
domestic and international routes in India, was struggling to deal with its poor performance. The
sources of problems were not difficult to identify. A strong impact of industry environment on
Indian airline performance was evident. Competitive forces were playing havoc with AI, but AI
was constrained in its ability to give an adequate strategic response. A key task of the case
analysis is to determine what AI should do to solve its strategic problems and revive its
performance. The case is useful in Post-Graduate or executive education programmes in
Business Administration or Management particularly for Strategic Management topics of
Industry Analysis and Competitive Strategy.

Case Synopsis
Indian airline industry on the eve of the global fuel crisis of 2008 had one of the fastest growing
air traffic across the world. Competition and an excess capacity build up were facilitating growth
until the fuel crisis erupted. In 2008, the second year in a sequence, carriers incurred huge losses.
For the public carrier Air India (AI), facing poor performance and serious financial problems for
years despite its recent merger with Indian Airlines (IA), problems were much more complex. It
was reeling under intense competition from private sector. Its market share was rapidly
shrinking. It was being pushed to be a marginal player. In response, AI made several strategic
moves. It tried to operate both full-cost and low cost services. It decided to join Star Alliance. It
offered lower fares. However, performance continued to deteriorate.
On September 26, 2009, the Executive Pilots of Air India (AI) began a strike protesting against a
cut in their Productivity Linked Incentives by 50%. The purpose of the cut was to control costs
and, thus, losses. The strike forced AI management to cancel several flights. It struggled to bring
the situation under control. Media reports in early March 2010 indicated Air India’s total losses
in the past two financial years to be Rs.72 billion (over $1.5 billion). The Government of India
tried to extricate it from the difficult situation by extending financial support; but the message
from Government was loud and clear: the airline needed to generate profits and its own cash to
keep it going further. Thus, its future strategy needed to focus on profitability and growth as its
overwhelming concerns. While there was much promise for the future in the Indian airline
industry, how the year ahead and beyond might turnout for AI was a moot question.


The author developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
a management situation. The case, instructor’s manual and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted
by the North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, Gatlinburg, October 28-30,
2010. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by P Rameshan. Contact person: P Rameshan,
Indian Institute of Management (IIM) Kozhikode, Calicut 673 570, India. +91-495-2809111. rameshan@iimk.ac.in


FRONTIER AIRLINES (2006)
Gordon Von Stroh, University of Denver
Vijaya Narapareddy, University of Denver
Maclyn Clouse, University of Denver

Case Objective
This case describes the history and positioning of Frontier Airlines, a Denver-based passenger
airline that focused on providing low-cost fares and excellent service to the price sensitive
individual and business customers. This case challenges students to evaluate the company’s
resource base and decide on the strategic path that it needs to take in the face of mounting losses
and intensified competition. It is written primarily for undergraduate, graduate, and executive
courses in Strategic Management.
The objectives of this case are to identify the company’s competitive strategy, conduct a
thorough analysis of the passenger airline industry, evaluate the company’s core competencies
using the RBV and VRIO frameworks, examine the financial health of the company, evaluate
potential strategic directions, and recommend the most feasible alternative for the company. A
unique aspect of this case is that it addresses the question of whether a young and small player
can create a sustainable advantage in the face of dynamic environments.

Case Synopsis
After serving over 87 million customers for 40 years, the old Frontier Airlines stopped operating
in 1986. The old Frontier Airlines had once dominated the Denver hub until it started having
financial troubles as a result of the increased competition in the deregulated aviation industry. In
1994, however, a group of old Frontier executives brought Frontier Airlines, a Colorado
corporation, back to the Denver International Airport (DIA). Initially serving small, underserviced
cities, the new Frontier grew steadily and flew to many of the popular destinations
generally dominated by large airlines, such as Los Angeles, Chicago, New York, and
Washington D.C. In addition, Frontier started offering international flights to Canada and many
resort towns in Mexico, becoming the second largest carrier in 2006 based on departures from
DIA. However, in 2006, Frontier faced a new direct competitor, Southwest Airlines, on its home
turf. With mounting losses and scarce resources, Frontier’s Board of Directors had to decide on
the strategic options available to them. Thus, this case provides students the opportunity to
decide which of those options was best for Frontier.


The authors developed this case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling
of the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, in Gatlinburg, TN, October 28-30,
2010. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © Gordon Von Stroh, Vijaya Narapareddy, and Maclyn
Clouse. Contact person: Vijaya Narapareddy, Daniels College of Business, University of Denver, 2101 S.
University Blvd., DCB 455, Denver, CO 80208; e-mail: vnarapar@du.edu ; tel: 303-871-2198


INTERTECH
Cathleen Burns, University of Colorado-Boulder
Paula Weber, St. Cloud State University

Case Objective

This case shows how a CEO and his strategic management team analyzed new opportunities and developed new strategies incorporating a variety of functional perspectives. It was designed for use in the first weeks of an undergraduate strategic management or small business management
course in order to help students recognize the value of their functional perspective as well as the importance of incorporating multiple perspectives in determining the optimal strategic direction for an organization. The goals were to help instructors tap into student's functional expertise thus allowing them to demonstrate their functional area knowledge to their peers; and to underscore the importance of considering all perspectives in setting corporate strategic direction.

The case could also be used as an assessment tool to examine how well students have retained nformation taught in functional core or major courses and how well they can apply this nformation prior to completing the strategic management capstone course.


Case Synopsis
This case focuses on a successful training and consulting company that was considering how aggressively they should invest in new distance education technology. These investment decisions would significantly change their historically successful business model and, thus, long
range plans for growth.
Intertech was founded in 1991 and provided technology training and consulting for a wide variety of clients, primarily in Minnesota. Intertech CEO and Founder, Tom Salonek, was trying to determine the next steps to achieve Intertech's growth goals. While the decision to purchase $25K of technology was an accounting "no brainer," the new direction must be viewed from a variety of functional and strategic perspectives.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of the situation. The case, instructor's manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, Gatlinburg, TN, October 28-October 30, 2010. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. ©2010 by Cathleen Burns and Paula Weber. Contact person: Paula Weber, St. Cloud State University, 720 4th Avenue South, St. Cloud, MN 56301, 320-308-5443, psweber@stcloudstate.edu


LULULEMON’S COMMITMENT TO THE ENVIRONMENT: A TANGLE OF SEAWEED, SUPPLIERS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
Andrea Erin Bass & Rebecca J. Morris (faculty supervisor)
University of Nebraska at Omaha

Case Objective
This case provides students with an opportunity to develop a damage-control strategy for a firm
following challenges to its product integrity, marketing, strategy, suppliers and ethics. While
this would be a daunting task for any firm, it becomes particularly difficult for a firm that was
founded on a message of health, happiness and environmental awareness. This case contains
sufficient information for students to conduct a strategic analysis of business level strategy and
competitive advantage issues while also challenging students to consider strategic leadership and
social responsibility issues.
This case is suitable for graduate or upper-division undergraduate courses in business and
society, business ethics, marketing strategy, or strategy. It is especially useful in modules
dealing with stakeholder analysis, business level strategy, and strategic leadership.

Case Synopsis
This case shows how a period of a few days can damage a corporate reputation that has taken
years to build. lululemon athletica Inc. (Lululemon) had built its successful yoga-inspired
apparel and accessories business around a manifesto based on quality, product integrity, balance,
entrepreneurship, greatness and fun. In less than ten years, the Canadian firm had grown to 81
company owned or franchised stores internationally. This all was threatened when the New York
Times ran an article in November 2007 challenging the product claims of one of Lululemon’s
most successful product lines, VitaSea. Lululemon’s share price plummeted on the news. Two
days after the article appeared, the Competition Bureau of Canada demanded that Lululemon
remove all therapeutic claims from its VitaSea clothing line. Despite acting quickly to change
VitaSea product claims, Lululemon’s management was challenged to repair the firm’s tarnished
image, to develop strategies to ensure this did not happen again and to quickly restore consumer
and stockholder faith in the company and its values.
The case includes the New York Times article, Lululemon’s press releases responding to the
article and the Statement from the Competition Bureau of Canada.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, Gatlinburg, TN, October 28-30, 2010.
All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Andrea Erin Bass and Rebecca J. Morris. Contact
person: Rebecca Morris, University of Nebraska at Omaha, College of Business Adminstration, 6001 Dodge Street,
Omaha, NE 68182, 402-554-3542, Rmorris@unomaha.edu.


MAINE SEAFOOD PRODUCTS
David Wylie, U. Srinivasa Rangan & Sam Hariharan
Babson College

Case Objective
The case has several inter-related purposes since it is positioned as one of the first cases in a core strategy course. As such, it calls for multiple industry analyses (using Porter's five-forces framework) as well as relative positioning of various players in the industry value system. It is also meant to be a case where linkages to concepts from micro-economics, entrepreneurship, and environmental sustainability could be established. Thus, the purpose of the case is to: a) permit three inter-related industry analyses at the lobster harvester, lobster dealer, and lobster processor levels; b) show how economic opportunities vary across the three levels and the reasons for it; c) allow would-be entrepreneurs to think of ways to restructure the industry and profit by it and to evaluate their actions; and d) recognize the public policy role of governments and others through regulation and other means to ensure the sustainability of natural resource exploitation.

Case Synopsis
John Hildreth, the president of Maine Seafood Products, faces a number of strategic decisions as he wrestles with the increasing pressures faced by a typical lobster processor company in Maine. The case is positioned in early 2007 when Maine Seafood, one of only five remaining seafood processors in the state of Maine, recognizes that the commodity lobster industry in the state faced difficult choices as a growing Canadian lobster industry and possible decline in lobster prices squeezed intermediating firms like Maine Seafood. John Hildreth has initiated a couple of key initiatives to secure the long term health of his company. His entrepreneurial moves included getting a patent on a new way of processing lobsters that allowed his product to be indistinguishable from fresh lobster, investing in plant and equipment to use the patented process to produce processed lobster in commercial quantities, taking advantage of the weak dollar to export to Europe, and exploring export opportunities in Asian and Australian markets.
Hildreth, however, is concerned that there were too many unknown factors in the environment that may pose challenges to his strategic vision. For instance, will the economic conditions continue to be favorable? Will the Maine state government act on the issue of sustainability of lobster fishing? What are the implications of those actions on price and availability lobsters for processing? Will the Canadian government continue to practice what American processors see as subsidizing lobster processing in Canada? If lobster fishing in Maine changes dramatically, how would it affect Maine Seafood's proposed strategic moves?


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 28-30, 2010.
Copyright © by Babson College 2010. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means – electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise – without the permission of copyright holders. Contact: Professor U. Srinivasa Rangan at rangan@babson.edu.


NETFLIX: ENTERING, ENGAGING AND EMBRACING INNOVATION IN THE MOVIE RENTAL INDUSTRY
Fred Walker (student) & Rebecca Treadway
Maryville College

Case Objective
The case illustrates the important connection between Porter’s Five Forces Theory and
strategy selection. Reed Hastings created Netflix when the DVD rental industry was
dominated by large, competitive deep-pocket companies. Netflix entered the market and
established a name and consumer demand. Critical analysis of the five forces makes
constraints and opportunities apparent and enables students to better understand strategy
selection. Likewise, the case illustrates the importance of leadership in the implementation
of strategy. Hastings’ strong leadership style and philosophy enabled Netflix to be
financially successful. During the recession of 2008, many DVD rental companies posted
losses and closed stores; Netflix earned profits, and increased their DVD library of titles.
The case is recommended for undergraduate courses in strategic management and in
leadership.

Case Synopsis
Reed Hastings, a successful entrepreneur, was frustrated with Blockbuster and overdue fees
on DVD rentals. In 1997, he created Netflix, the first business in the DVD rental industry to
allow customers to rent DVDs over the internet and receive rentals in the mail within days.
In 2004, customers paid $17.95 per month to use the Marquee Program to rent three movies
at a time with no due dates or subscription charges. Netflix added movie-streaming
capabilities to subscription customers; instead of waiting for the DVD to arrive in the mail,
customers could find a movie and watch it instantly on their computers. Even though the
competition increased the use of technology, Netflix was one step ahead in innovation. The
Netflix culture promoted innovation through company policy and structure.
In a fiercely competitive movie rental industry, Netflix grew from the underdog to a DVD
rental giant. They increased sales by millions. Blockbuster had been the industry leader
since 1985. Yet, in 2009 many believed Netflix would soon take first place in the DVD
rental industry and end Blockbuster’s 25 year winning streak. How was Netflix able to
enter the industry? Why did they have great success when so many other companies
declared bankruptcy or were quickly acquired by larger companies. What allowed Netflix
to maintain their successful strategy?




PERWAJA STEEL
June M. L. Poon, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Chui-Yan Yap, Universiti Malaysia Pahang

Case Objective
This case provides students with a business scenario on Perwaja Steel—one of the biggest steel
companies in Malaysia. The main objective of this case is to provide students the opportunity to
conduct a SWOT analysis. In conducting the analysis, students will have the opportunity to (a)
examine the strengths and weaknesses of the company’s internal environment, (b) evaluate the
challenges and opportunities confronted by the company in its external environment, and (c)
identify strategies for success and survival in the steel business. Written using publicly-available
documents, this case is suitable for both undergraduate-level and graduate-level business students
enrolled in courses in strategic management. Students using this case should have fairly welldeveloped
knowledge and analytical skills in the functional areas of business.

Case Synopsis
This case begins by highlighting the uncertain future of Perwaja Steel, a major steel player in the
Malaysia, that became profitable only after 20 years since it was founded in 1982. The first part
of this case covers the company’s external environment, providing a general overview of the steel
industry in 2008 by looking at the steel production process, steel demand and supply, and global
competition. The second part of this case covers the company’s internal environment, providing
information on the company’s history and developments, management and personnel, facilities
and production, marketing and sales, and local competitors. Some of the questions that readers
might ask as they go through the case include: What might the future bring for Perwaja? Does the
company have what it takes to become a major player in the competitive global steel market? Can
it bounce back?


Work on this case was supported by a Malaysian government research grant (Grant # UKM-GUP-EP-07-18-115).
The authors developed this case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, October 28-
30, 2010. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by June M. L. Poon and Chui-Yan Yap.
Contact person: June M. L. Poon, UKM-Graduate School of Business, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600
Bangi, Malaysia, +603-8921-3455, jpoon@ukm.my


THE U.S. DIGITAL SIGNAGE INDUSTRY 2010: AN INDUSTRY ANALYSIS
Joseph Kavanaugh, Sam Houston State University
Carol Cumber and Josh Warne, South Dakota State University

Case Objective
This is an analysis of the 2010 status of the U. S. digital signage industry. It is written to provide
interested case researchers with background on this emerging segment of the advertising
industry. It can also serve undergraduate and graduate students in management and marketing
strategy courses as an example of how an industry analysis might be structured. The analysis
seeks to fulfill several objectives relevant to management and marketing strategy courses where
analysis of the external environment of a firm is important. 1. Use this structure to explore an
emerging medium in the U. S. advertising and messaging industry. 2. Provide for case writers
interested in this industry an overview of its dynamics and near-term future. 3. Identify for
researchers the relevant content to include in an industry analysis.

Case Synopsis
The billboard, sign, and outdoor advertising industry in the U.S. is almost as old as the Colonies.
Lighted billboards, roadside signs, neon, and other forms of display are part of our everyday
environment. The newest segment of the industry, digital signage, is driven by 21st century
technologies in computers, peripherals, graphics, and new sources of light -- liquid crystal
display (LCD), light emitting diodes (LED), and others. Less than twenty years old, the digital
segment (sales of $2.14 billion) was estimated to be 17.8 percent of the outdoor signage industry
in 2008. The digital out-of-home (DOOH) segment of the advertising industry grew from $5.5
billion to $7.5 billion from 2003-2008. Expenditures from 2009-2013 for out-of-home
advertising are expected to grow 6.6 percent from $7.5 billion to $10.3 billion. It is the fastest
growing segment of the advertising industry.
This note reviews the digital signage industry and explores the forces that are driving this
emerging segment of the advertising, messaging, and sign industry.


The authors developed the industry note for class discussion.. The industry note, instructor’s manual, and synopsis
were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its
annual meeting, Gatlinburg, TN, October 2010. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by
Joseph Kavanaugh, Carol Cumber and Josh Warne. Contact person: Joseph Kavanaugh, College of Business
Administration, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville TX 77379. 936-294-1236. Kavanaugh@shsu.edu.


TOMPKINS WAKE
Stephen Bowden, University of Waikato

Case Objective
The case shows the evolution and operation of a law firm based in Hamilton, New Zealand. The
largest player in the Hamilton market is seeking to develop from a local player into a national
firm. The case provides the opportunity to examine a professional services firm. Many law
firms in New Zealand are operated as partnerships with limited attention to strategy or human
resources. The case allows the analysis of the strategic position of Tompkins Wake as well as
the resources which underly that position. The legal industry in New Zealand is also profiled to
enable an analysis of the competitive context Tompkins Wake faced. The case was originally
written for an undergraduate strategy case competition and is designed for use in undergraduate
and MBA courses in strategy, international business and/or business, government and society.

Case Synopsis
Richard Rowley, CEO of Tompkins Wake, walked purposefully towards the company’s recently
refurbished meeting rooms. As he passed through the modern-looking foyer, he strode past the
original letter that had been sent out to the local community in 1922 when Tompkins Wake first
opened for business in Hamilton. Addressing the seven equity partners, Rowley began, “what
we have achieved in the 20 months since I arrived has been very pleasing. But if we are to
achieve our vision of being the first national law firm based in Hamilton then I can’t help feeling
we need to move faster - that we need to make a significant enough move to create a step-change
in how we are perceived in the market place.”


The author developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 28-30, 2010, Gatlinburg, TN.
All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Stephen Bowden. Contact person: Stephen Bowden,
Department of Strategy & Human Resource Management, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New
Zealand, 64-7-838-4472, sbowden@waikato.ac.nz


TOMPKINS WAKE
Stephen Bowden, University of Waikato

Case Objective
The case shows the evolution and operation of a law firm based in Hamilton, New Zealand. The
largest player in the Hamilton market is seeking to develop from a local player into a national
firm. The case provides the opportunity to examine a professional services firm. Many law
firms in New Zealand are operated as partnerships with limited attention to strategy or human
resources. The case allows the analysis of the strategic position of Tompkins Wake as well as
the resources which underly that position. The legal industry in New Zealand is also profiled to
enable an analysis of the competitive context Tompkins Wake faced. The case was originally
written for an undergraduate strategy case competition and is designed for use in undergraduate
and MBA courses in strategy, international business and/or business, government and society.

Case Synopsis
Richard Rowley, CEO of Tompkins Wake, walked purposefully towards the company’s recently
refurbished meeting rooms. As he passed through the modern-looking foyer, he strode past the
original letter that had been sent out to the local community in 1922 when Tompkins Wake first
opened for business in Hamilton. Addressing the seven equity partners, Rowley began, “what
we have achieved in the 20 months since I arrived has been very pleasing. But if we are to
achieve our vision of being the first national law firm based in Hamilton then I can’t help feeling
we need to move faster - that we need to make a significant enough move to create a step-change
in how we are perceived in the market place.”


The author developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 28-30, 2010, Gatlinburg, TN.
All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Stephen Bowden. Contact person: Stephen Bowden,
Department of Strategy & Human Resource Management, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New
Zealand, 64-7-838-4472, sbowden@waikato.ac.nz


Case Research for Theory

360 DEGREE ANALYIS OF AN ORGANIZATION: A PARADIGM FOR 21ST CENTURY CASE RESEARCH
Carol J. Cumber, South Dakota State University
Joseph K Kavanaugh, Sam Houston State University
Tonya J. Hansen, Minnesota State University-Moorhead

Case Objective
At the core of case research methodology is the established and long-tested case research method
built upon the relationship between the researchers, the target firm, and its leadership. The
primary research objective of 360 Degree Analysis of an Organization was to develop an
integrated approach to case writing which extended the scope and complexity by incorporating
multiple key areas of the business simultaneously. To do so required: 1. key case writer teams
to focus on each of the major discipline-based areas of business activity; 2. identification of key
opportunities for case-based learning; and 3. development of discipline specific case statements
that highlighted the key learning issues while also reflecting the inherent interconnectedness that
may impact practice areas and influence the preferred decision set available to the decision
maker. In sum, the goal of this approach was to achieve a more fully-integrated set of cases that
described the comprehensive condition of a firm within the same time frame using a common set
of data, conditions and characters. By doing so, the dynamic nature of business problem-solving
would be better illustrated. Both students and instructors would be challenged to integrate the
considerations of multiple perspectives while simultaneously seeking to respond to disciplinespecific
issues faced by the firm.

Case Synopsis
The theoretical domains of this approach were two-fold: First, as the basis for case description
and analysis, to define clearly the linked set of issues that confronted the discipline-specific
realm of organizational life; and second, to advance case research methodology to enable
investigators to explore such issues simultaneously. The sought outcome was to place in the
hands of instructors a set of vignettes that explored multiple dimensions of organizational life
within the same context of time and space and resources available for problem-solving. As
envisioned, it resulted in an analytical environment for problem-solving and decision-making
that more closely emulated real-time environments faced by organizational decision makers than
what has previously been achieved by case researchers who used a singular discipline focus. The
results of this approach included integrated cases developed in various disciplinary areas, an
industry analysis manuscript, and a methodology paper.


The authors developed this paper for discussion pertaining to the methodology involved when using a wholistic
approach to writing integrated cases. The manuscript was anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the North
American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 28-30, 2010, Gatlinburg, TN. All
rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Carol J. Cumber, Joseph K. Kavanaugh and Tonya J.
Hansen. Contact person: Carol J. Cumber, Department of Economics, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD
57007, 605.688.4849, carol.cumber@sdstate.edu.


EMOTIONS AND TELEMEDICINE
Ryan Baxter, Monica Garfield, & Janis Gogan
Bentley University

Case Objective
Information systems scholars are just beginning to move beyond a rational-cognitive view of
how emotions impact the adoption and use of information technology (IT). Most studies in this
stream of research have been concerned with users’ emotions directed at a computer system,
such as computer playfulness and computer anxiety (i.e., the computer system is the object of the
user’s emotions). Yet, IT use is embedded in a broader context that includes the tasks that are
being supported by the computer, relationships among the people who use the computer to
collaborate, and other factors that are likely to give rise to a variety of emotions that also affect
adoption and ongoing use. At the same time, a growing body of research in neuroscience and
psychology continues to highlight the critical nature of emotions on decision-making. In three
case studies of clinicians using telemedicine systems to collaborate across distances we
examined this broader emotional context of IT use. Our purpose is to understand how the context
of use affects users’ emotions, and how these emotional responses in turn affect usage.

Case Synopsis
The three cases of telemedicine services for physician-to-physician consultations in critical care
pediatrics, acute stroke, and geriatric psychiatry represented different combinations of task
urgency, task structure, and degree of user discretion. Our results indicate that during episodes of
high urgency (high risk plus time pressure), clinicians experience uncomfortable emotions such
as fear and worry – particularly when they feel they lack needed specialized knowledge or
expertise. Some clinicians suggested that under time pressure, they feel telemedicine would be a
distraction, so they choose not to use it. Other clinicians reported that under the stress of time
pressure, their computer anxiety increased. However, clinicians who did use telemedicine in such
circumstances, to confer with specialists at tertiary care centers, reported that this interaction
gave them valuable reassurance that they were giving the patient optimal treatment. In nonurgent
situations (such as in the geriatric psychology telemedicine services), clinicians were
nearly universal in saying that telemedicine was helpful, despite some initial reservations. They
also indicated that in this non-urgent clinical domain, where time pressure was not a factor,
minor usability issues were easily tolerated. From these findings we conclude that minor
usability issues impede usage in urgent situations but are much less likely to deter usage in nonurgent
situations. Future research should continue to investigate the extent to which the context
of IT use affects potential users’ emotions, and how these influence subsequent use.


This research was anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the North American Case Research Association
(NACRA) for its annual meeting, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, October 28-30, 2010. All rights are reserved to the
authors and NACRA. © 2010 Ryan Baxter, Monica Garfield, and Janis Gogan. Contact person: Ryan Baxter,
Bentley University, 175 Forest St., AAC 289, Waltham, MA 02452. , 781-891-3485, rbaxter@bentley.edu.


Cases in Spanish

Grupo Torres
Josep Lluís Cano & Josep M. Sayeras
ESADE Business School

Case Objective
The Torres case provides an excellent example of how the ERP software selection process is
carried out by an organisation’s executives or managers. The objectives of the case are: to
discuss ERP tool selection criteria; to point out that the decision-making process does not end
with the selection of a solution but, rather, it is successfully implemented; to highlight the key
issues associated with ensuring project success when the level of resistance to change is very
high and there have been implementation problems in previous attempts; to show various change
management techniques that might help reduce the level of resistance in the implementation of
ERP solutions.
The Torres case has been designed for use in information systems courses. Its approach can be
adapted for use in both basic and advanced courses. In basic-level courses, the case can be used
as an introduction to ERP solutions and provides the possibility of working with ERP solution
decision-making criteria; while in advanced courses, the main focus should be on challenging the
selection process for this type of solutions and managers’ responsibilities, in addition to putting
forward the change management techniques necessary to attempt to ensure the project’s success.

Case Synopsis
Grupo Torres had set aside economic resources for information systems capable of handling the
complexity of its business, but, so far, the results had not been entirely satisfactory. After several
failed attempts from the President’s Office, the decision was taken to rethink the project. A new
alternative had been considered: This was compared with what had been used up till then and the
new proposal was finally chosen. The person who was to lead the system changeover was
Joaquím Remolí, the group’s Administration and Systems Manager. Joaquím’s team had already
studied and defined the project, but Joaquím still had reservations. He had been asked personally
by the President, Miguel A. Torres, to ensure that the project reached successful completion. The
President’s words still rang out loud and clear in Joaquím’s mind: “Mr Remolí, you have my full
support, but give me a starting date and stick to it.” They would have to consider what else could
be done to avoid failing this time round as well. The team members’ futures depended on the
success of the project.


The authors developed these cases for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective
handling of the situation. The cases, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and
accepted by the North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, Gatlinburg,
Tennessee, October 28-30, 2010. All rights are reserved to the author and NACRA. © 2010 by, Josep Lluís Cano,
Josep M. Sayeras. Contact person: Josep Lluís Cano, ESADE, Av. Pedralbes 60-62, 08034 Barcelona, Spain,. +34-
93-280-6162, joseplluis.cano @esade.edu


Tia Maruca: Gestionando en Tiempos de Crisis

Pablo Jose Alegre, Javier J. O. Silva, & Maria Barale

IAE Business School - Universidad Austral

Case Objective

"Tia Maruca: Gestionando en Tiempos de Crisis" puede ser utilizado en programas de educacion ejecutiva, mas especificamente en programas orientados a directivos de Pequenas y Medianas empresas (PYMES). Tambien se podria utilizar en otros programas ejecutivos donde se discutan temas de precios


Case Synopsis

A mediados 2002, Alejandro Ripani, Gerente General y dueno de Tia Maruca (TM), analizaba los cambios que debia realizar en su politica de precios. En ese ano, Argentina estaba vivendo uno profunda crisis social y economica, con una inflacion que ascendia al 21% a mediados de ano estimandose que aumentaria al 40% hacia fines de ese ano.

La tendencia alcista en los precios trajo como consecuencia un aumento en los costos de los insumos de TM, lo que comenzo a presionar vigentes. Dicha decision no solo significaba un eumento de precios sino tambien un posible cambio en el modelo de negocio utilizado desde el nacimiento de TM, el cual contemplaba uniformidad en los precios de todos los productos. Este aspecto era muy valorado tanto por los consumidores de TM como por los integrantes del canal de distribucion, lo que dificultaba aun mas la decision.


Los autores desarrollaron el case para discusion en clase mas que para analizar su eficaz o ineficas manejo de la situacion. El caso, la nota de ensenanza y la sinopsis fueron evaluados por pares y aceptados por NACRA (North American Case Research Association) para la conferencia anual que se llevara a cabo entre el 28 y 30 de Octubre, en Gatlinburg, Tennessee, USA. Todo los derechos se reservan a los autores y a NACRA. © 2010 por Pablo Alegre, Javier J. Silva, y Maria Barale. Persona de contacto: Javier Silva, IAE Business School, Universidad Austral - Mariano Acosta s/n Ruta Nac. 8 (B1629 WWA) Pilar - Buenos Aires - Argentina, palegre@uae.edu.ar

 



UNA CRISIS FINANCIERA FAMILIAR
Gabriel Noussan
IAE Business School

Case Objective
Este caso permite comprender la importancia de una adecuada planificación de las finanzas
familiares. Además de brindar la oportunidad de reflexionar sobre los elementos clave de la
planificación financiera personal posibilita una introducción en el funcionamiento de las
opciones financieras. El caso persigue tres objetivos diferentes: 1) El 1er. objetivo es que los
directivos de empresa puedan comprender y valorar la importancia de la planificación anticipada
de sus finanzas familiares. Esto que es algo normal en directivos anglosajones es, un elemento
muy descuidado por parte de sus pares latinoamericanos. 2) El 2do. objetivo es generar interés en
los cursos de finanzas, por parte de los estudiantes. El tratamiento del caso hace que el estudiante
se ponga en la “piel” del personaje, por lo que se genera un aprendizaje “interesado” de estos
temas. La problemática hace evidente la necesidad de contar con una comprensión básica del
funcionamiento de los mercados de capitales y de las opciones financieras como instrumentos de
inversión, por lo cual se convierte en un elemento inspirador del aprendizaje de Finanzas. Esto
resulta muy importante para el desarrollo de capacidades básicas de análisis económico y
financiero que posibilitarían el desarrollo de una visión integral de los negocios en particular en
muchos directivos que por formación o vocación no tienen una inclinación natural por los temas
financieros. 3) El 3er. objetivo es introducir los elementos básicos del funcionamiento de las
opciones financieras como vehículos de inversión y cobertura de riesgos para los inversores.
El caso ha sido preparado especialmente para ser usado en una materia electiva del MBA sobre
Finanzas Personales. Permite una introducción sencilla e interesada de los participantes en los
elementos básicos de las opciones financieras, no se requiere un extensivo conocimiento previo
de finanzas por parte de los estudiantes, sin embargo debe ir acompañado por una nota técnica
básica sobre Opciones Financieras y una Nota Técnica sobre Exchange Traded Funds (ETF’s).

Case Synopsis
El caso describe la situación de Marcelo Andrada un directivo de marketing de una importante
empresa que está a 14 años de su retiro y tiene por diversos motivos una situación financiera
muy estrecha que no le asegura una jubilación holgada. Sus conversaciones con un joven broker
especialista en los mercados de derivados, le hacen entrever el potencial de dichas inversiones y
está dispuesto a dejar el enfoque conservador de sus inversiones personales para buscar perfiles
más agresivos de inversión que le permitan salir de su apretada situación. ¿Son correctas las
recomendaciones del joven Broker para Marcelo Andrada, que debería tener en cuenta?


The author developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 28-30, 2010, Gatlinburg,
Tennessee. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Gabriel Noussan. Contact person:
Gabriel Noussan, IAE Business School, Universidad Austral, Mariano Acosta s/nº y Ruta Nac. 8 (1629) Pilar -
Buenos Aires, Argentina, Phone: 54 2322 481 032; Fax: 54 2322 481 020; e-mail: gnoussan@iae.edu.ar.


Education

A SMALL LIBERAL ARTS COLLEGE FOLDS
Eric W. Hayden
University of Massachusetts Boston

Case Objective
The case underscores the crucial role that enrollment plays in ensuring the survival of the
independent liberal arts college. It does this by focusing on Bradford College, a small
liberal arts college that was unable to attract a sufficient number of students and, as a
result, folded in 2000. In the process of diagnosing the college’s enrollment problems,
the case also has three other objectives. First, it provides the student an appreciation of
the role of the liberal arts college in the realm of American higher education. Second, it
shows that, regardless of educational mission, the first requisite for any institution of
higher education is financial viability, which in turn depends on adequate enrollment.
Finally, it introduces the student to the role -and liability- of the board of trustees in the
governance of non-profit education. The case was written for use in graduate courses in
education.

Case Synopsis
This case is about the demise of Bradford College, a small liberal arts college located 35
miles north of Boston, in Haverhill, Massachusetts. In the mid-1990’s, with enrollments
stuck in the 500-600 range and with continuing operating loses, the college initiated a
focused strategy to increase enrollments by at least 200 students. An outside consultant
was hired to develop a comprehensive marketing plan, a new dean of admissions
embarked on an aggressive enrollment campaign, and the college issued some $10
million in new debt to finance the renovation of existing residence halls and the
construction of new student housing, steps that were all undertaken in order to attract and
retain more students. Despite some immediate improvement in the enrollment and
operating numbers, however, the college ran out of time and, in November, 1999,
announced that it would be closing at the end of the current academic year. The case is
presented from the perspective of the college president, and the student is asked to step
into her shoes and address a range of issues relating to the wind-down: minimizing the
pain and suffering of suddenly disenfranchised students, faculty, and staff; avoiding
bankruptcy while ensuring that Bradford’s legacy survives, through either a tie-up with
another academic institution or sale of the campus; dealing with bond holders in the event
of a likely bankruptcy; and disposing of the restricted endowment.


The author developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective
handling of the situation. The case, the instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed
and accepted by the North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting,
Gatlinburg, Tennessee, October 28-30, 2010. All rights are reserved to the author and NACRA. © 2010
by Eric W. Hayden, College of Management, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Blvd.,
Boston, MA 02125, 617-287-7707, eric.hayden@umb.edu


ISN’T A LITERATE SOCIETY EVERYONE’S BUSINESS?
Audrey Wright
Worcester State College

Case Objective
The case was developed primarily for use as a basis for discussion of how to more
effectively develop literacy programs that include collaboration between schools,
universities, and businesses. It provides opportunity to focus on potential problem
situations that arise in collaborative efforts. It also can be used to address the challenges
of implementing new ideas into college courses.

Case Synopsis
Two professors are struggling over how to successfully implement a literacy program
into area businesses. They have tried to prepare future educational leaders to collaborate
more effectively with families and businesses. While, the students feel that the
collaboration efforts have helped them it has not resulted in actually getting local
businesses to accept a program that would address employee literacy or the working
fathers’ involvement with the literacy of their children.
The case provides information about the literacy program and the course in which it was
implemented. The professors are faced with how to make their efforts ultimately more
fully inclusive. They have failed to convince a local business that was contacted by their
students, to implement the “Read to Me, Papa” program. They see the acceptance of this
program as businesses’ willingness to view a literate society as everyone’s business and
not just the schools.


The author developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or
ineffective handling of the situation. It is submitted to the North American Case Research
Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 28-30, 2010 in Gatlinburg, TN. All rights
are reserved to the author and NACRA. © 2010 by Audrey Wright. Contact person: Audrey
Wright, Worcester State College, awright1@worcester.edu.


Entrepreneurship

Avessa Inc. The Lipstick Factor- A new opportunity?
Lynn Ruggieri & Alyssa Arne
Roger Williams University

Case Objective
This case shows how a small business owner is trying to maintain sales in a struggling economy.
The entrepreneur of a salon and day spa, which offers luxury services such as facials and hair
color, has seen sales plummet in the recession. The owner, Ellen Rogers, has been in the beauty
business for 15 years and notes that no matter how bad the economy, customers still buy
makeup. The case explores several different alternatives for increasing the gross profit on
makeup sales. The case explores decision analysis through contribution margin and breakeven
analysis. The case considers a sales mix of products and also explores the advantages and
disadvantages of private label outsourcing. The case was written for business school
undergraduate courses in managerial accounting and entrepreneurship.

Case Synopsis
The owner would like to capitalize on the fact that cosmetics sold well, even in an economic
recession – the so called lipstick factor. Although the product line has been successful she is
considering two alternatives -outsourcing to a private label manufacturer and establishing a
manufacturing operation. Avessa offers a full makeup line and makeup application services.
Ellen was pleased with the line and it was selling well but it was very expensive to purchase and
as a result the gross profit was not high. In addition she needed to maintain a substantial
inventory in order to cater to clients with different skin types and to offer her clients a large
variety of colors.
Avessa could contract with a private label manufacturer and would be able select a collection of
products and shades that best reflect the clients and Avessa would be able to attach its own label,
custom decorating the products with its own name and logo. After researching the manufacture
of cosmetics Ellen learned that the raw material list is simple. Manufacturing its own make up
would allow Avessa to cater to the particular needs of its clients creating essentially a custom
made product. She could also focus on a particular theme such as “green” and all natural. It was
a lot to think about but there are definitely alternatives for Ellen to reduce her costs and thereby
increase her profit. But which alternative should she choose?


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, Edgewater Hotel & Conference
Center, October 28- October 30, 2010. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Lynn Ruggieri
and Alyssa Arne.Contact person: Lynn Ruggieri, Gabelli School of Business, Roger Williams University- 1 Old
Ferry Road, Bristol RI 02809, 401-254-3401, lruggieri@rwu.edu


Carolina Health Staffing
Susan D. Peters & Brianna Zhang
Francis Marion University

Case Objective
Carolina Health Staffing provides temporary (locum) jobs for Certified Registered Nurse Anesthesiologists (CRNAs). The firm was founded in 2004 by Steve and Max, both CRNAs themselves and had exhibited nice growth and profitability. By 2009, they had been joined by a third, equal partner, Jerome, who was to assist them in their plan for the immediate future: (1) increase their geographic scope; (2) do permanent placements of CRNAs in addition to the locum business; and (3) gradually expand into locum and permanent placement of other medical professions. At this juncture, the business was beginning to face some challenges as well, including the looming potential loss of two major clients accounting for nearly half their revenues and a potential lucrative joint venture.
Carolina Health Staffing exhibits much of the classic symptoms of small business growing pains and of some of the stereotypical entrepreneur types. The organization can be analyzed for some of the “typical” mistakes a small business makes, especially a business that fills such a unique niche that it can almost do no wrong at first.

Case Synopsis
While designed to fit a small business class, the issues could also be pertinent for the strategy professor looking for a small business example. With a little creativity, the marketing aspects of Carolina Health Staffing can be analyzed and a marketing plan put together for it.
The learning objectives are as follows:
1. Analyze growth issues in a small business
2. Plot different growth strategies for a growing small business.
3. Examine different entrepreneurial types and the effect on a small business.
4. Realize the importance of a well written mission and vision statement.


While designed to fit a small business class, the issues could also be pertinent for the strategy professor looking for a small business example. With a little creativity, the marketing aspects of Carolina Health Staffing can be analyzed and a marketing plan put together for it.
The learning objectives are as follows:
1. Analyze growth issues in a small business
2. Plot different growth strategies for a growing small business.
3. Examine different entrepreneurial types and the effect on a small business.
4. Realize the importance of a well written mission and vision statement.


HTPERFORMANCE
Raymond M. Kinnunen & Susan F. Sieloff
Northeastern University

Case Objective
The case is appropriate for entrepreneurship classes at the undergraduate or graduate levels. Students have the opportunity to evaluate the growth opportunities of a new company, built on the interests and knowledge of its founders. The case allows students to evaluate growth opportunities to achieve a fivefold increase in sales in the next year; a strategic choice between continuing its current path, expanding to new markets or a related diversification into building rally racing cars. Each option requires estimating the potential revenues generated and considering the resources necessary for successful implementation. The case encourages students to create an implementation time line and plan.

Case Synopsis
As a year old start up in the spring of 2010, HTPerformance designed and manufactured automotive aftermarket performance parts. The company specialized in performance and suspension parts that enhanced the performance and handling of a car. Building from an initial concentration on the Ford Focus, HTPerformance targeted sport compact and sport sedan vehicles with premium parts. The two co-founders utilized fast turnaround, high quality and innovative engineering to create custom solutions. HTPerformance sought to expand sales from its current level of approximately $100,000 to $500,000 within the next year. The owners are considering whether to continue concentrating on the Ford Focus; build on its recent involvement in rally racing or expand into new car models.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, Gatlinburg, KY, October 30-
November 1, 2010. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 Raymond M. Kinnunen and Susan F. Sieloff. Contact Person: Susan F. Sieloff, 225A Hayden Hall, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, 617-373-4638, s.sieloff@neu.edu .


Finance & Economics

GOOGLE INC.’S ACQUISITION OF ADMOB
Nikhil P. Varaiya
San Diego State University

Case Objective
The objectives of the case are: (i) to highlight the role of acquisitions as integral to Google’s growth strategy; (ii) how the perception and pricing of Google as a growth stock necessitates the continual search for new growth opportunities; and (iii) to navigate the considerable challenges of valuing a potentially high growth startup both as a stand-alone firm and as an acquisition target.

Case Synopsis
This case describes Google’s decision in November 2009 to purchase AdMob for $750 million in stock. AdMob, a mobile advertising startup founded in 2006 sells ads across thousands of websites that are tailored for mobile phones. Google is viewed by investors as a growth stock implying that Google management must ensure that Google either meets or surpasses investor expectations for continued future profitability and earnings growth. Google continues to be an active acquirer: between 2000 and 2008 Google completed 52 acquisitions with an estimated deal value of $6.7 billion. The AdMob acquisition is a significant component of Google’s growth strategy.
Online advertising revenues constitute 97 percent of Google’s 2009 total revenues. In 2009, Google’s revenue growth from selling text advertisements linked to search queries slowed dramatically. In order to bring in new growth and maintain its leadership in the online advertising market, it sought to enhance its footprint in the rapidly-growing mobile display advertising segment. The first part of the case allows the student to examine Google’s growth strategy as well as the structure of the online advertising market, and its component the mobile advertising market.
The second part of the case deals with the valuation of AdMob, a private startup as a stand-alone firm as well as an acquisition target. Since there are no publicly-available data for AdMob a stand-alone valuation would comprise (i) implicit valuations based on pre-acquisition investments by VCs and others; (ii) a DCF-based valuation would using Google financial performance data and applying them to AdMob estimates of future revenue growth obtained from its estimated market share in the mobile advertising market. Finally, AdMob’s valuation as an acquisition target would rely on rudimentary data on comparable acquisitions in the online advertising market.


This case is developed from a student project: “Google Inc.’s Acquisition of AdMob” by Anas Bhairi, Vincent Herrera, and Benjamin Littman. All case information is obtained from public sources. This project is a requirement in the MBA program at San Diego State University. This project was completed under the supervision of Professor Nikhil Varaiya. Contact person: Nikhil P. Varaiya, Department of Finance, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-8236, nvaraiya@mail.sdsu.edu


GRANNY’S POULTRY COOPERATIVE (MANITOBA) LTD.
Charles E. Mossman & Brian Oleson,
University of Manitoba

Case Objective
This case focuses on strategic, operational, and financial planning for a poultry producer cooperative.
It also introduces co-operatives and reviews the history of this organization and its
indicated future direction as a means of suggesting appropriate policies. The case can be used as a
general introduction to the co-operative organizational structure for agricultural products (chickens
and turkeys). It may be used in basic or advanced policy, financial management, or agribusiness
courses to illustrate practical management decisions that have implications for future expansion of
the firm and marketing of new products.
The issues related to this annual decision can illustrate board governance principles. Directors may
have temptations to keep members happy by distributing too much equity or cash, and creating
potential financial difficulties. On the other hand, they may be too conservative, leading to suboptimal
investment performance by retaining too much equity and cash within the co-operative and
failing to attract new farmer-producers.

Case Synopsis
In August 2009, Craig Evans, Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Granny’s Poultry Cooperative
(Manitoba) Ltd., was considering the initiatives he would propose to the Board at its next meeting in
September. During his last one and a half years as CEO, Craig was satisfied that Granny’s new head
office and hatchery were becoming more efficient and that he had been able to build on previous
management’s success. A new, integrated information and accounting system should also bring improved
feedback on operations. However, there were several issues which might need adjustment to Granny’s
business model. These included growing Granny’s to gain higher economies of scale, improving
production yields, and developing new value-added products to improve profitability.




GREEN SHOE ESTATES 2009
Raymond H. Lopez, Pace University
Armand Gilinsky, Jr., Sonoma State University

Case Objective
Green Shoe Estates may be used as an introductory case in the areas of financial analysis and
policy at the MBA level. Due to the nature of the business the case strengthens the student’s
ability to forecast different marketing strategies and their impact on the financial structure of a
firm. The economic and financial environment in which the firm operates has changed
significantly over the last year. Various financing alternatives could be chosen to take Green
Shoe successfully through the next few years. An optimum financing strategy is the firm’s goal.
The teaching note was prepared for graduate students in an MBA program. It is best used early in
a capstone course, after students have been exposed to a broad range of financial subject matter
in their previous course work as finance majors. It could also be used in a strategic management
course.

Case Synopsis
Over the first decade of the new century growth slowed due to changing consumer choice as well
as the firm’s desire to reduce financing pressures that had faced the majority owners, Sally and
Nancy. In 2000 they had to sell equity in the firm in order to support revenue and market share
growth in this capital intensive industry. For $2 million they sold a 20% ownership stake in the
firm to private investors lead by Mr. Arthur Malone. In mid-2008 the firm faced a number of
challenges that they and most of the wine industry had not experienced in decades. The financial
crisis affected consumption of luxury products significantly and consumer demands for premium
table wine declined for the first time in recent memory. Yet grapes continued to grow in the
vineyards and imports continued to come into US distribution channels. Inventories began to
increase from consumers all the way back to the wineries.
Consumers began to “trade down” in both price and quantity after “trading up” for more than a
quarter century. How does a relatively small, private winery stay competitive against industry
giants as well as rapidly growing import competition? Green Shoe also faced a more restrictive
financing environment. In early 2009 their revolving credit agreement with Wells Fargo needed
renegotiating and their $2 million term loan was also coming due later that year. With the
banking industry tightening credit standards and private equity still relatively expensive, how
will the Stone sisters navigate these turbulent product and financial markets?


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, October 28-
30, 2010. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2009 by Raymond H. Lopez and Armand Gilinsky,
Jr. Contact person: Raymond H. Lopez, Lubin School of Business, Pace University, 1 Martine Avenue, White
Plains, New York 10606, 914-422-4165, rlopez@pace.edu


HINDUSTAN UNILEVER LTD.
Vishwanath S R & Kulbir Singh
Indus Business Academy, India
Institute of Management Technology, India

Case Objective
The case documents the dividend policy of a well known multinational firm in India. Students
are asked to make inter firm comparisons and estimate the optimal pay out for the company. The
objective is to introduce issues in pay out policy. The case helps students understand the
theoretical and practical implications of dividend policy. The case allows instructors to present
Modigliani and Miller’s theory of dividend irrelevance. In addition, the case illustrates the role
played by security analysts in disseminating information and determination of stock prices. By
doing the case, students should learn what factors firms consider when establishing a dividend
policy; what factors make dividend policy relevant (e.g. signaling, taxes, transaction costs,
agency conflicts, clientele effects, executive stock options, market conditions); what factors lead
firms to change their dividend policy and how a firm’s competitive and financial strategies are
related. The case was written for a graduate level business course in corporate finance.

Case Synopsis
In early 2008 an analyst at a prominent Investment Bank in India was analyzing the dividend
policy of Hindustan Unilever, a well known multinational. The case protagonist, an equity
analyst, must decide what investment recommendation she should give in the light of the
prevailing situation. The case describes the Indian FMCG industry as India enters the new
millennium and details HUL’s financial position in an era of increasing competition. Priya must
decide whether the dividend policy of HUL is sustainable.




SOTHEBY’S CASE
Hugh Grove, Tom Cook & Sean Dixon
University of Denver

Case Objective
The case has several major objectives: 1) to identify equity valuation models and explain the
information required to value equity securities, 2) to apply the net asset valuation approach to
value equity securities, 3) to apply the discounted free cash flow model to value equity securities,
4) to apply the market (multiples) approach to value equity securities, 5) to assess the risk of an
investment in Sotheby’s common stock, and 6) to decide whether to recommend an investment
in Sotheby’s common stock. If positive, recommend a position size to enter and, then, exit the
investment. This case is appropriate for an investment course with both finance undergraduates
and finance graduates after the major equity (business) valuation approaches have been covered
in class. Although this case is set in early 2010, it is really a timeless investment issue and could
be updated to whenever the instructor assigns the case, i.e., should the financial analyst
recommend the purchase of Sotheby’s common stock?

Case Synopsis
Sam Dunn was a security analyst for MSP Capital, a value-oriented investment manager based in
Denver, Colorado. This firm invested in undervalued or overlooked companies across the
market capitalization spectrum with an emphasis towards small and mid-capitalization
companies. It had three primary investment objectives for its clients: 1) superior absolute returns
in all market conditions, 2) capital preservation with reduced risks of permanent capital loss, and
3) limited monthly draw-downs. Accordingly, Sam was given the following security analysis
task in early 2010. Is Sotheby’s an attractive long investment opportunity at the current stock
price of $15 per share? To answer this question, students may use the three primary (and other)
equity valuation methods of net asset valuation, free cash flows, and market (multiples).


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or
ineffective handling of the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were
anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the North American Case Research Association
(NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 30-November 1, 2008, Durham, NH. All rights are
reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Hugh Grove and Tom Cook. Contact person:
Hugh Grove, Daniels College of Business, University of Denver, 2101 S. University Blvd.,
Denver, CO 80208, 303-871-2026, hgrove@du.edu


Human Resources

DAKTRONICS, INC.: STAFFING FOR A BILLION DOLLAR DREAM
Marlene M. Reed, Baylor University
Charles M. Carson, Samford University
Carol J. Cumber, South Dakota State University

Case Objective
The case illustrates some of the challenges associated with strategic human resources
management decision making. These challenges occur within varying environmental conditions
(e.g. a period of rapid growth followed by a worldwide economic recession). The case requires
students to understand the importance of developing a succession plan for Daktronics; a
company that has a strong culture that has been influenced by family involvement and leadership
since the company’s inception. Students must also evaluate the role of culture as the company
considers strategic ways in which to expand its workforce. Students are also tasked with
examining the positives and negatives of internal versus external recruiting as well as analyzing
the uniqueness of Daktronics relationship with the local university, South Dakota State
University.
This case is designed for use in undergraduate Human Resources Management courses.

Case Synopsis
This field researched case focused on the necessity of developing a human resource strategy for
Daktronics, a company which was founded in 1968 in Brookings, South Dakota, as a small
producer of scoreboards for collegiate wrestling matches. By 2010, the company was generating
a half billion dollars in revenue annually by producing electronic scoreboards, programmable
display systems, and large screen video displays using light emitting diode (LED) technology.
Some of the HR issues that had to be considered were: Development of a succession plan for the
future; the role of the founding family in that succession; process for guiding culture change in
the future as the company moves further away from Brookings; and consideration of the
relationship with South Dakota State University in relation to student employees and interns.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. All rights are reserved to the authors © 2010 by Marlene M. Reed, Charles M. Carson, and Carol J.
Cumber. Contact person: Charles M. Carson, Brock School of Business, Samford University, Birmingham, AL
35009, cmcarson@samford.edu


EILEEN: A LINE MANAGER’S DILEMMA
Therese Sprinkle
University of Cincinnati

Case Objective
This case puts students in a managerial decision making role; they must decide whether Eileen is
worth saving, or if they should fire her. The students make their decisions based on a variety of
organizational behavior and HR topics including: motivation, performance management, and
person-organization fit. This case was written for business school, or HR Management
undergraduate courses in Management, HR Management, or Performance Management.
The teaching objectives are as follows: (a) To put students in a position of being a manager to
understand the types of personnel decisions they may have to make. (b) To provide an
appreciation that personnel decisions are not always clear cut, and (c) To demonstrate that good
performance management may mean assessing issues of “B” and “C” performance, person-job
fit, and environment.

Case Synopsis
Lia has been asked to make a performance management recommendation for Eileen who is an
inconsistent performer. Lia took over the team 6 months ago and has been asked to make a
decision on Eileen. She has heard about Eileen’s performance issues for years: for certain clients
and tasks, Eileen is a star player, but for other work, she is considered careless. A recent incident
in front of a client has precipitated this decision-point in Eileen’s career. Clients and Client
Service appear to appreciate Eileen, but internally her performance is hit or miss. Lia must
decide what to do with Eileen, and rather than make a decision based on one incident, she reads
through her HR file.
The HR file itself is full of inconsistencies in performance, leading Lia to wrestle with whether it
is Eileen who is performing poorly or if situational influences, e.g., environmental triggers, client
management, that may be causing the inconsistency.


The author developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective and ineffective handling
of the situation. © by Therese Sprinkle. Contact person: Therese Sprinkle, College of Business, University of
Cincinnati – P.O. Box 210165, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0165, 513-556-7130, sprinta@mail.uc.edu


NORTH GREENVILLE FITNESS AND CARDIAC REHABILITATION CLINIC, INC., 2010
Jenifer King Greene, Maryville College

Case Objective
This case addresses a health screening company that has developed a unique organizational
culture characterized by teamwork and commitment of employees to a common organizational
goal. Through its development over 31 years, it has been guided by a commanding and
passionate owner and president who has considered this endeavor “his baby”. Employees find it
difficult to imagine a company without the presence of its strategic and philosophical leader.
What factors are contributing to the development of this culture? Can this culture continue to
exist upon the retirement of its leader? The case is well suited for consideration of succession
planning, HR planning and exit strategy, and organizational culture.

Case Synopsis
North Greenville Fitness and Cardiac Rehabilitation Clinic, Inc. located in Travelers Rest, S.C.,
began in October of 1980 to provide health screening services for compliance to certain OSHA
regulations (See Exhibit 1). These regulations pertained to the occupations of fire, police, EMS,
industrial response teams, hazmat units, forensic teams, airport fire, certain nuclear facilities, and
any industry involved with the wearing of artificial breathing apparatus such as mining and
utilities. Essentially, companies or municipalities involved in these types of activities must have
regular screenings to monitor employee health and/or to ensure certain health criteria are met to
allow for safe performance of duties. The company had experienced steady growth over the last
ten years.
Throughout its existence, the company had been characterized by a unique corporate culture
described as both “intense” yet “laid-back”. Employees were deeply committed to what they did
and believed that teamwork was necessary for the successful accomplishment of their daily
mission. Employees also enjoyed a comprehensive benefits package and a strong sense they were
not just workers but part of a “family” engaged in a very meaningful enterprise. The driving
factor behind this culture was reported to be the owner and president of the company, Charles F.
Turner. As Charles approached retirement, questions were surfacing as to how the company
would proceed once he was no longer involved in day-to-day operations. Could this unique
culture be maintained without his vision and guidance? What steps would need to be taken to
insure that the company would continue to grow while maintaining its sense of purpose and
commitment to producing a quality service?


The author developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 28-30, 2010, Gatlinburg, TN.
All rights are reserved to the author and NACRA. © 2010 by Jenifer King Greene. Contact person: Jenifer King
Greene, Maryville College, 502 E. Lamar Alexander Pkwy., Maryville College, 865-981-8047,
jenifer.greene@maryvillecollege.edu


OFFER AND COUNTEROFFER: TO PLAY THE GAME OR NOT?
Thomas R. Miller, The University of Memphis

Case Objective
The purpose of the case is to help students learn about the management and human resource
issues involved in offers and counteroffers in employment situations. The specific teaching
objectives are to improve understanding of the dynamics of offers and counteroffers, illustrate
the complexities of addressing competitive employment offers, develop student skills in
analyzing employment offers, and foster development of policy perspective on the use of
counteroffers as a human resource tool. The case is intended primarily for undergraduate
courses in human resource management and compensation administration. Depending upon the
needs of the instructor, the case could be used to address the topics of pay administration,
compensation fairness, pay equity, motivation, and justice theories.

Case Synopsis
Larry Farrell, Associate Dean of the College of Business at Alexander State University, received
disturbing news on his voicemail from Alex Chapman, Management Department Chair.
Chapman reported that one of his top management professors had received an attractive offer to
join the faculty at another institution. Following a meeting that afternoon of Chapman and the
faculty member to discuss the matter, Chapman came to Farrell’s office to relay the information
and offer his assessment. The offer involved a pay increase of over $40,000 along with other
benefits. Concerned about the prospect of losing one of his most accomplished and productive
research faculty members, Chapman asked Farrell about getting the Dean’s support for a
counteroffer to try to retain the faculty member, who had to make a decision within a week.
Farrell told Chapman that securing a counter offer would be challenging, not only because of the
austere funding environment but also because there was some resistance in the University to
making counteroffers. In addition, there had been no general pay increases in the University for
the last three years. He also cautioned Chapman about the possible negative morale effects on
other department faculty members if a significant salary increase were offered to this professor.
As they concluded their discussion, Farrell asked Chapman to think carefully about what he
wanted to do and, if he wanted to propose a counteroffer, prepare a recommendation and
justification that made a strong case. Late in the afternoon and into the early evening, Chapman
assembled data and thought about how to proceed, knowing that his report and recommendation
was due by noon the following day.


The author developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
an administrative situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and
accepted by the North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 28-30, 2010.
All rights are reserved to the author and NACRA. © 2010 by Thomas R. Miller. Contact person: Thomas R.
Miller, Fogelman College of Business & Economics, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152-3120, 901-
678-4563, thmiller@memphis.edu


ROBB FITZGERALD AT COMVIA NETWORKS
Gerry Yemen & Robert Bruner
Darden School of Business, University of Virginia

Case Objective
Intended for MBA and executive education classes in management and leadership, this case
provides an excellent avenue to explore the role of the CEO and the complexity of relationships
he or she often face. Consider the leadership challenges entailed in “taking charge”—how to
build one’s personal leadership momentum upon arriving in a new and troubled situation.
a. The factors that make a difference in the effectiveness of a transition.
b. The kind of work entailed in “taking charge”—cognitive, team-building, and
organizational change.
This case can be used to exemplify the challenges of managing and leading change. Explore the
leadership of change, beginning with the discovery and prioritization of issues and the
development of an action plan. Issues that crop up include change implementation, change
management, leadership, management skills, organizational culture, organizational objectives,
organizational problems, building trust, and relationship building. The case also lends itself to a
discussion of change agents and their role in organizations. And generally, the material illustrates
the messiness of general management.

Case Synopsis
This disguised, but factually true, story of the turnaround of a publicly-listed technology firm is
pretty dramatic. When the former CEO suddenly leaves, Robb Fitzgerald is hired to calm the
crisis and rebuild trust among employees, shareholders, and analysts. Under extreme pressure to
significantly improve the bottom line and prevent the firm from being delisted, Fitzgerald is
preparing to give the board a briefing on the issues facing the company and forward priorities
identified in his first 100 days with the firm. The board would expect not only a summary of
problems but also an outline of actions he proposed to take. Which actions were more important?
What should he do first? How was he supposed to divide his time? Many critical decisions arise
simultaneously.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, October 28-
30, 2010. . All rights reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Gerry Yemen and Robert Bruner. Contact
person: Gerry Yemen, Darden Graduate School of Business, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, 100 Darden
Blvd, Charlottesville VA 22903, 434-924-7193, yemeng@darden.virginia.edu.


Information Technology

NIKE+ BUILDING VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES
Joan Ramon Mallart & Javier Busquets
ESADE Business School (Universidad Ramon Llull) – Barcelona

Case Objective
The purpose of the case is to reflect on the innovation journey, especially from Nike’s
perspective. As Nike decided to partner with Apple to design and market the Nike+ device, the
dynamics and rules of the joint-venture are studied. In addition, the case-study focuses on Web
2.0 and internet community strategies, from the perspective of a company seeking to reinvent its
relationship with customers, while exploring the opportunities and threats implied by managing
an online community.
By studying this case and participating in class discussion on the facts and issues raised, students
will: a) Understand the innovation process as a journey of discovery, with its potentially
significant failures and successes; b) Learn about the benefits and risks of building partnerships
for innovation: balancing strengths, partner accountability, commercial exploitation and product
evolution; c) Analyze product innovation driven by customer insights and user experiences; d)
Become familiar with the concept of product enrichment when an original product is combined
with value-added related products and services to provide a competitive advantage; e)
Understand the huge benefits a committed internet strategy can bring when combining Web 2.0
technologies, community-building, and mobilization; f) Understand the potential that the analysis
and use of customer data gathered from an online community offers to companies, as well as
significant threats implied in terms of data protection and privacy issues.

Case Synopsis
This teaching case illustrates the story of Nike, a multinational sports equipment and sportswear
manufacturer, and its launch of Nike+, an innovative product that was joint-ventured with Apple.
Nike+ was officially released in May 2006 and is a wireless device located under the sole of
specially designed running shoes. It acts as a pedometer to measure running pace and other data.
Information is transmitted in real-time to a receiver in Apple’s iPod portable music player. As
well as launching a new device on the market (combining running metrics, exercise, and portable
music) Nike and Apple’s aim was to define a smart-driven product strategy that combined crossselling
and extra-revenue sources from related products and services for both companies (for
example, specially designed shoes and garments, iTunes special music packs). By embracing
Web 2.0 and social networking techniques, users are given the ability to monitor their running
progress on the nikeplus.com website. This helps Nike build a dynamic and sticky community of
runners around the globe.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling
of the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, Gatlinburg,TN October 28-30, 2010.
All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Joan Ramon Mallart and Javier Busquets, Contact
person: Joan Ramon Mallart, ESADE Business School (Ramon Llull University). joanra.mallart@esade.edu


Peak Experiences and IT Priorities at Vermont Teddy Bear
Janis Gogan & Mark Lewis
Bentley University, Waltham MA

Case Objective
This case was designed for use in an MBA course on IT Management, for students who do not aspire to IT careers yet need to understand the IT-related responsibilities of the CIO, the Board of Directors, and functional managers. Peak Experiences and IT Priorities at Vermont Teddy Bear addresses the related topics of IT planning and prioritization and the central issue of strategic IT alignment. An organizing framework for the case discussion is a Strategic Alignment Grid proposed by Gartner group, which categorizes companies based on two factors: the strength of management’s commitment to deploy IT for business value, juxtaposed against the strength of the company’s IT architecture (defined as its IT infrastructure + core applications and data).
Specific learning objectives for this case are:
 Identify elements of a company’s strategy and its IT architecture.
 Assess whether the IT architecture is aligned with current and planned strategy.
 Formulate recommendations for improving strategic IT alignment

Case Synopsis
In winter 2010 Bob Stetzel, Vermont Teddy Bear’s new CIO, hopes to replace or modernize existing systems and invest in some new applications. Since joining the company three months before, he became familiar with its small IS organization and the “spider web” of middleware connecting various applications and platforms. Although Stetzel feels that his IS employees are talented and resourceful and that the company’s core ecommerce foundation is reasonably strong, he sees plenty of room for improvement. Finding incomplete documentation of the existing applications or overall IT architecture, he spent his first few months cataloging the systems in place, identifying problems, and locating employees with expertise to fix them. He now observes that applications development has not been managed as a systematic process, that many end-users have taken matters into their own hands and built “shadow” systems, and that there is no formal change control process. He further discovers that the company has survived an economic downturn and several costly strategic missteps. Under a new CEO (in place for one year), the company is seeking new sources of revenue and ways to leverage the strong Vermont Teddy Bear brand. Now Stetzel needs to set priorities: should VTB invest in a full-featured ERP package, or take other steps that would more quickly yield tangible results? Whichever path he chooses, Stetzel will have to convince the CEO and the Board of Directors to provide the necessary resources.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, Gatlinburg, TN, October 28-30, 2010. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Janis Gogan and Mark Lewis. Contact person: Mark Lewis, Bentley University, 175 Forest Street, Waltham MA 02452-4705. mlewis@bentley.edu


International Business

BIOMEDICA GROUP – S.p.A.
Tom Morris
University of San Diego

Case Objective
This case describes a common international dilemma of established policies that attempt to
maximize corporate welfare, and at the same time, measure international subsidiaries as though
they are standalone cost centers with profit and loss responsibility. The Biomedica subsidiary
manager is perplexed. He asks, “How can we meet our subsidiary profit goals, and earn our
annual bonus while being forced to sell products which reduce our profitability?” This is a
classic centralization versus de-centralization issue. The corporation wants to maintain a
consistent transfer price policy throughout all of the international subsidiaries, and does not want
to change the transfer pricing to Italy. Is the corporate policy too inflexible? Should subsidiary
goals be subordinated to corporate goals? Should subsidiary management be free to utilize their
resources in whatever way optimizes their performance? The case is written for both
undergraduate and graduate students in business strategy, international business and international
comparative management. It affords the opportunity to develop a discussion and an
understanding of transfer pricing issues, and corporate policy vis-à-vis their international
subsidiaries. The case is written for business school undergraduate courses in business strategy
and international business.

Case Synopsis
This is a study of conflicted corporate policy. The corporation wants to exercise central control
over their world markets. They want their Italian subsidiary to maintain their market share with
an obsolete dialyzer (blood filter) by selling it at a loss, while a new competitive dialyzer is
completing FDA trials. Unfortunately for John Cannon, the Managing Director of the
subsidiary, his personal performance is measured by the profitability of the subsidiary. How can
the subsidiary manager meet his objectives when they are in conflict? Kyle Collins, the corporate
controller must resolve the conflict in a way which satisfies both the corporate and subsidiary
objectives.


The author developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, Gatlinburg TN, October 28 – 30,
2010. All rights reserved by the author and NACRA.  2010 by Tom Morris. Contact person: Tom Morris,
School of Business, University of San Diego, Alcala Park, San Diego, CA 92110, 619-260-4885,
OldTomMorris@sandiego.edu


FC BARCELONA: MORE THAN JUST A CLUB
Josep Franch, Jordi Montaña & Andreu Turró
ESADE Business School

Case Objective
The ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ case study has been designed to be used in a Brand
Management course and/or an International (or Global Marketing) course. It is recommended for
advanced rather than basic or introductory courses. An alternative use of the case, not developed
in this Instructor’s Manual, could be in a class specifically on Sports Marketing or Sports
Management. The main reasons why this case is ideally suited to students or course participants
in an advanced Brand Management course or an International or Global Marketing course are:
some knowledge of basic marketing concepts and branding is required; and the case deals with
an industry which is more challenging to manage than an industrial or consumer goods industry.
This case could be used with different target audiences: MSc students, MBA students with a
variety of profiles and years of experience (full-time, part-time or executive MBA formats) and
in Executive Education programs. The case, however, is not suited for undergraduate students
unless they are in the final year of their studies and preferably are marketing majors.
The main learning objectives of the ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ case are:
to analyse the main dimensions of a brand; to become aware of the difficulty and complexity of
internationalising a brand and transferring its values to other markets; to assess the feasibility of
introducing a brand in different foreign markets, specially with budget restrictions; and to discuss
the implications of the branding decisions taken.

Case Synopsis
FC Barcelona (Football Club Barcelona) is one of the most famous and richest football clubs in
the world, with more than a hundred years of history. The club’s business model has undergone
important changes over the last 25 years, as has occurred with the entire football industry.
Football has become an entertainment industry on its own, some years ago operating only locally
and now globally. Today, football clubs are competing not only to win titles on the playing field
but also to win market share, have more customers and generate higher profits by implementing
different corporate and marketing strategies.
Within this context, a major challenge for FC Barcelona marketing managers is how to expand
globally, entering and growing in markets like North America or Asia, with high growth
potential but where football is not the most popular sport. In addition, the main issue is how the
FC Barcelona brand and its values can be made to appeal to those markets.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, Gatlinburg (TN), October 28-30,
2010. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Josep Franch, Jordi Montaña and Andreu Turró.
Contact person: Josep Franch, ESADE Business School, Av. Torreblanca, 59, 08172 Sant Cugat del Vallès, Spain,
josep.franch@esade.edu


Marketing

BEYOND NEVERLAND: HOW TO MARKET REAL-WORLD SKILLS TO A GENERATION OF ADOLESCENTS
Maureen Casile & Efstathios G. Kefallonitis, SUNY Institute of Technology
Kristine F. Hoover, Gonzaga University

Case Objective
This case challenges marketing research students to analyze ambiguous survey data (Part A),
develop and critique theories based on the data (Part B), and develop a marketing plan (Part C)
for a service organization. The case deals with enrollment challenges at Edutech, a Midwestern
U.S. vocational high school. The Edutech case study can be used for an undergraduate marketing
research course (Marketing Research Principles or equivalent). Parts A, B, and C may be used
individually or separately, and may be worked on by small groups or individually. Alternatively,
Parts A and B may be used to stimulate classroom discussion. Part C may be used in a Principles
of Marketing class as an individual or small group project.

Case Synopsis
This case stems from concerns by officials at a Midwestern U.S. vocational high school that the
school was not attracting enough students from traditional high schools in its service area.
Believing that the problem was due in part to negative perceptions of the vocational high school,
a graduate student from a nearby state university collected data from sophomore high school
students who had toured the vocational school. Her data collection focused on (1) how highly
students valued the aspects of an education that were central to the vocational high school’s
mission, (2) how well they believed this high school and their own high school would deliver
these aspects of education, and (3) how students would describe students at the vocational high
school as opposed to students at their own high school.
Data from the survey indicated that the individual elements of the vocational school mission
were important to the students. The data also indicated that perceptions of the vocational students
were generally positive, although the vocational students are perceived to be less athletic,
musical, intelligent, and normal. At the same time, perceptions of the traditional school students
were also found to be rebellious, shallow, snobby, and wild. The case provides an alternative
theory to the challenges facing the vocational school and asks students to address the
fundamental question: “Why aren’t more students choosing Edutech for their high school
education?”


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, The Edgewater Hotel & Conference
Center, October 28-30, 2010. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Maureen Casile,
Efstathios G. Kefallonitis and Kristine F. Hoover. Contact person: Kristine F. Hoover, Leadership Studies, Gonzaga
University, 502 Boone Ave., Spokane, WA 99258, 509-313-3138, hoover@gonzaga.edu!


ESTABLISHING TRUST IN THE FACE OF CHANGE: THE ROLE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN AN ACQUISITION
Ashley Keebler, Beth Nogosek, & Jennifer Bott
Ball State University

Case Objective
This case presents the story of Washington County Memorial Hospital (WCMH), a
Critical Access Hospital that required bankruptcy protection. St.Vincent Health System, a large,
Catholic-based hospital system located in Indianapolis, IN, was contracted to provide
management services and limited support while Washington County Memorial Hospital pursued
options for emerging from bankruptcy. Eventually, options were exhausted and St.Vincent put a
bid in to acquire WCMH.
Market research indicated the associates and community had lost faith in WCMH.
St.Vincent, consistent with their Core Values and their brand image, launched a strategic
marketing communications and public relations initiative to revitalize trust in the hospital. This
case presents the integrated campaign, which targeted associate buy-in and community reengagement.
This case is written for upper-level undergraduate business students in a strategy or
marketing course or public relations students in a public relations strategy or planning course.

Case Synopsis
Washington County Memorial Hospital was on the brink of bankruptcy and about to
close its doors, potentially forcing local residents to drive miles for emergency and inpatient
care. St.Vincent Health System, a large hospital network, has a commitment to Critical Access
Care and moved in to acquire the small hospital. This case presents background on the players,
the acquisition process, and the process used to incorporate associates and community members
into the new brand. Specific, successful techniques are highlighted, as well as reaction by
stakeholders.




GREEN LIGHT RESHUFFLE PHASING OUT INCANDESCENT BULBS IN FRANCE
Yuting Chang & Ronald G. Kamin
Institut Supérieur du Commerce-Paris

Case Objective
The case describes the situation facing the Manager of the Lighting Retail Channel at the Osram
Lighting Company France. Light bulbs, incandescent (GLS) and compact fluorescent (CFL)
lamps, are marketed through two main distribution channels: Mass-Merchandisers (the “food”
market) and Do It Yourself superstores. Osram is the historic leader in the DIY channel;
however, the company is losing its competitive edge over Philips, particularly in the compact
fluorescent (CFL) category. Philips maintains an absolute dominance in the M-M channel in both
lamp categories. Over the past year, Osram has lost 3.4 points in volume and 13.2 points in value
in the M-M channel, unable to expand its sales in the CFL category. Osram’s options are either
to go Mass with CFL lamps nationally or to consolidate into the DIY. This distribution strategy
issue is further exacerbated by a political decision: a European Directive renders the replacement
of CFL by GLS lamps mandatory by 2009. This case is designed for a course in consumer
behavior and in the use and interpretation of brand performance metrics at the undergraduate
level. It can be used with a narrow focus for probing the various components of the market share,
or with a wider one for examining the market/category dynamics.

Case Synopsis
On October 23rd 2008, Thomas Leblanc, the Manager of the Lighting Retail Channel at the
Osram Lighting Company France is assessing his company’s current distribution strategy.
According to press sources, the European Council plans to vote on December 8th on a program to
bring incandescent (GLS) lamps to an end. The GLS category, which accounted for more than
76% of the total light bulb market in 2007, will be gradually phased out starting in 2009.
Following a European Directive for improving the environmental performance of energy related
products (ERPs), GLS lamps will be replaced by energy-saving (CFL) ones over a period of six
years. The European Council decision represents a major external change for the French lighting
industry. The actions triggered by this political event imply mid- to long-term organic changes in
the existing market structure, competitive trends, product offerings in the various distribution
channels, and new purchasing and consumption patterns on the part of customers. Thomas
Leblanc has now to decide. Do CFL lamps in the food channel represent such an opportunity?
Would the move into the food channel strengthen Osram’s market position in the long run? “I
have collected data retrospectively; however, have I generated enough forward-looking data?”
Thomas Leblanc wondered?


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, Gatlingburg, Tennessee, October 28-
30, 2010. All rights are reserved to the author(s) and NACRA. © 2010 by Ronald G. Kamin. Contact person: Ronald
G. Kamin, Institut Supérieur du Commerce, ISC-Paris, 22 Boulevard du Fort de Vaux, 75017 Paris France, 33-
140539999, rkamin@groupeisc.com


Lubrax by Petrobras
Javier J. O. Silva, Fernando Zerboni & Maricruz Prado
IAE Business School – Austral University

Case Objective
This case comes in two formats: a written and a multimedia version –using either
format, class delivery and conclusions are the same. It provides an insight into the use of
advertising campaigns as a marketing tool, describing the company’s competition,
consumers, distribution channels and organizational hurdles. As a result, it may be used to
help students: understand communications complexities, delving into each step in the process
and taking stock of relevant decisions involved, learn about the research studies and data
analyses required to build a communications plan that fits in with a company’s strategy,
manage a specific marketing budget, gain experience on advertising campaign development
and survey the mix of marketing drivers needed to boost business sustainability.
This case may be used for the first marketing course in MBA curricula, as well as in
executive education programs addressing Communications and Advertising Strategy issues.

Case Synopsis
On a cold July afternoon in 2005, Matías Ruiz faced a difficult challenge. After
months of long presentations and detailed discussions, the budget for a new advertising
campaign had been finally approved. Ever since its arrival in Argentina, the company had
concentrated all its efforts on positioning its corporate brand. Now with a firm standing in the
domestic market, the time had come to advertise Lubrax, Petrobras’ lubricant brand.
Bearing in mind that the goal was to build a unique and independent brand identity for
Lubrax while preserving its links to Petrobras, Ruiz’s team, along with Diálogo Publicidad, a
local advertising agency, had prepared three TV advertisements. Ruiz had to choose the most
suitable campaign with an approved budget of US$ 3 million -40 percent below the sum he
had hoped to raise.
At least one of those ads had to be launched in late October 2005, in time for the
category’s seasonal consumer sales peak. To do that, Ruiz needed to make a decision and to
present a complete proposal to Lubrax’s Marketing Director. This case study describes the
questions confronting Ruiz at that time –“Which ad should we pick? What brand image do we
want for Lubrax? What is it that we wish to communicate? What is our goal? What segment
are we addressing?”


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective
handling of the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and
accepted by the North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 28- 30,
2010, Gatlinburg, Tenessee, USA. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Javier J.
Silva, Fernando Zerboni and Maricruz Prado. Contact person: Javier J. Silva, IAE Business School, Austral
University- Mariano Acosta s/n Ruta Nac. 8 (B1629 WWA) Pilar – Buenos Aires - Argentina, jsilva@iae.edu.ar


Mapear Project – A community-based effort to map Argentina
Javier J. O. Silva, Fernando Zerboni & Mariel Santolo
IAE Business School – Austral University

Case Objective
This case may be used to help students into exploring key aspects of a business
strategy such as the use of business networking and modern marketing practices, discussing
the notion of joint value creation in a community, and gaining a better understanding of user
communities’ management issues.
This case was designed for strategic marketing and relational marketing courses
included in MBA program curricula or executive education programs.

Case Synopsis
Mapear, Mapas Electrónicos Argentinos, was a collaboration project created in
Argentina in early 2005 to create quality maps for GPS or Global Positioning System
devices. Its underlying community featured 400 members and 330,000 registered users. Both
community registration and map utilization were free of charge.
Mapear maps were drawn by any user or community member who wished to
contribute to this nationwide mapping effort. Free collaboration enabled Mapear to become
Argentina’s most reliable and updated map source. In five years, this nonprofit had
successfully mapped nearly one million kilometers of roads and trails in Argentina.
The maps produced by Mapear were available for Garmin-branded GPS
device users and included city and street maps, water maps, and trail maps that were
registered as the community’s intellectual property. Mapear operated entirely online and was
managed by its nine founders. It was incorporated as a nonprofit civil society organization in
order to protect its maps and regular updates.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective
handling of the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and
accepted by the North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 28- 30,
2010, Gatlinburg, Tenessee, USA. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Javier J.
Silva, Fernando Zerboni and Mariel Santolo. Contact person: Javier J. Silva, IAE Business School, Austral
University- Mariano Acosta s/n Ruta Nac. 8 (B1629 WWA) Pilar – Buenos Aires - Argentina, jsilva@iae.edu.ar


Not for Profit

CENTRAL CITY OPERA HOUSE ASSOCIATION (2010)
Gordon Von Stroh, University of Denver
Vijaya Narapareddy, University of Denver
Nancy Sampson, University of Denver

Case Objective
This case describes the history and growth of Central City Opera House Association (CCOHA)
located in the picturesque mountain town and historic district of Central City. This case
challenges students to evaluate the company’s resources and business model and decide on the
changes that CCOHA needs to undertake. It is written primarily for undergraduate and graduate,
courses in Non-Profit Management as well as the Not-for-Profit module of the capstone course in
Strategic Management.
The objectives of this case are to (i) evaluate CCOHA’s strengths and weaknesses using the
RBV (Resource-based view) framework popular in the field of Strategic Management and
identify CCOHA’s sources of competitive advantages; (ii) to examine CCOHA’s financial
statements and assess if the organization needs a new and different business model; and (iii)
discuss CCOHA’s business model and suggest if CCOHA should close or continue to operate
with a new business model.

Case Synopsis
In January 2010, CCOHA’s Board members realize the pressing need to evaluate the
organization’s business model. The urgency was brought on by growing deficits in the
organization’s finances compounded by the economic crisis in the State of Colorado and the
nation. Founded in 1933, CCOHA’s mission was to “foster interest and education in performing
arts.” The purpose was to create "a summer arts festival to restore and utilize the historic Central
City Opera House built in 1878." As such, this non-profit organization’s goals included not only
maintaining artistic excellence in its programming but also preserving and restoring its 550-seat
opera house and 28 additional historic buildings including 25 residences, built in Central City
from1860 to 1900. The Opera House owned by the Association was nested in the scenic
mountains and was an integral part of the history and culture of Central City and the Blackhawk
National Landmark Historic District. However, declining revenues and contributions, and rising
operating costs threatened the Association’s existence. In an effort to reverse these adverse
trends, Board Chair Jerome Martin and Treasurer Peter Benz began to search for new business
models.


The authors developed this case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling
of the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, in Gatlinburg, TN, October 28-30,
2010. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © Gordon Von Stroh, Vijaya Narapareddy, and Nancy
Sampson. Contact person: Vijaya Narapareddy, Daniels College of Business, University of Denver, 2101 S.
University Blvd., DCB 455, Denver, CO 80208; e-mail: vnarapar@du.edu ; tel: 303-871-2198


Ethics, Accounting and Internal Control at Blackhawk Country Club

Jeffrey E. Michelman, Jason W. Lee & Steven K. Paulson

University of North Florida

Case Objective

This case illustrates how a fraud was committed by a controller in a country club. This case is illustrative

of the common occurrence by non-profit organizations experiencing management turnover and lack of

active board involvement. The case examines the relationships among ethics, accounting and internal

control in the management oversight and board governance processes. The case is optimized for use in 

an upper level undergraduate course in non-profit or sports management.


Case Synopsis

The case takes the reader through an adyssey that a new general manager at a well respected country club

takes when she uncovers a $1,000,000 fraud by one of her employees. The case is told at a level that could be

used to illustrate important accounting issues for non-accountants. Along the way students are forced to think about

what they wouold have done had they been in the fole of the general manager. The case makes use of basic forensic

techniques and discussed the relationship between managers and the board of directors as well as with law enforcement

agencies.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of the

situation. The case, instructor's manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer revieweed and accepted by the North

American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 28-30, 2010, Gatlinburg, TN. All rights

are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Jeffrey E. Michelman, Jason W. Lee and Steven K. Paulson. Contact

person: Jeffrey E. Michelman, Coggin College of Business, University of North Florida, 1 UNF Drive, Jacksonville, FL,

32224, 904-620-1541, jmichelm@unf.edu

 



PAUL MEECHAM AND THE BALTIMORE SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA
Timothy W. Edlund, Morgan State University
Karol V. Menzie, Free Lance Writer & Editor

Case Objective
This case describes the challenges that faced the new CEO of the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra
beginning in 2006. The case is both evaluative and decision-oriented. It is intended primarily for
courses in strategic management and leadership of non-profit organizations, particularly in
managing arts organizations. As a side issue, it illustrates methods used to locate and hire new
senior executives, in both for-profit and non-profit organizations; which most students are not
likely to be aware of. Lessons can be drawn about managing own careers.
Objectives include developing understanding of coming into a new position (especially senior
ones) and making improvements that affect performance as quickly as possible; and taking
advantage of fortuitous circumstances; illustrating changing course radically, in response to
unforseen circumstances (such as the great recession that began in 2008); and to the selection of
what choices to make; understanding the impact of heavy fixed costs, particularly in the short run;
illustrating the building of relationships with employees, and the beneficial outcomes that can
result. Challenging student assignments can include exercises in imagining and evaluating future
alternatives; in building audiences; and creating a Summer home for the orchestra. Student
understanding of issues in managing one’s own career, and the impacts of chance events thereupon
can result.

Case Synopsis
This case covers the hiring of Paul Meecham as President and CEO of the Baltimore Symphony
Orchestra, and his first 3-1/2 years in office. Early on, he was faced with a near rebellion of the
symphony’s musicians, critical administrative staff vacancies, past deficit spending and raids on
the endowment, and declining attendance. But he, the Board, and the community were looking
forward to the debut as Music Director of Marin Alsop, an American and the first woman to direct
a major American Orchestra. Two years later he was faced with the devastating impact of the
great depression of 2008. The case ends with Mr. Meecham considering challenges that lie ahead
in repositioning the orchestra to be more effective in the next years of the 21st Century.


The authors developed this case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the North
American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, in Gatlinburg, TN, November 28-30, 2010.
All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © Timothy W. Edlund and Karol V. Menzie. Contact person:
Timothy W. Edlund, Dept of Business Admin., Morgan State University, 1700 E Cold Spring Lane, Baltimore, MD
21251-0002, 443-885-1687, 443-844-2443, tim.edlund@morgan.edu


THE BARNABA INSTITUTE: FIGHTING HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND BUILDING A PRESENCE
Marie Rock & John Seeger
Bentley University

Case Objective
This case shows how a determined and charismatic leader, Frank N. Barnaba, at the urging of
friends, began a new non-profit whose purpose was to fight domestic sex trafficking After years
working for one non-profit he had started, Barnaba decided to start another one with the help of
friends. The new organization, the Barnaba Institute, was much smaller and faced many
challenges that new non-profits encounter, such as finding volunteers and other resources while
maintaining good relationships with important stakeholders. However the biggest problem was
finding and securing enough funding for the organization to continue its work. Securing adequate
funding, while expending highly limited resources to provide services and programs, is the
strategic balance that the organization must find. Extreme resource dependence is a survival
issue for this small non-profit. This case can be used in courses in non-profit management, social
issues, business-government-society, and strategic management.

Case Synopsis
Frank N. Barnaba had over thirty years experience in rescuing people from sex trafficking
situations. He had founded a non-profit, CORP, for that purpose several decades ago, to serve
New York City and outlying areas. After being asked to concentrate on fundraising for the nonprofit
by the Department of Justice, with a reduced role in education, Barnaba resisted and then
decided to retire from CORP in 2006. As an alternative, he and some friends co-founded a small
non-profit organization, the Barnaba Institute, to educate communities and society in general
about domestic human trafficking and to provide outreach and rescue services to people who
wanted to escape. Barnaba’s friends wanted to capture his knowledge and expertise so that others
could be taught how to rescue victims of sex trafficking. This case describes the background of
Frank N. Barnaba; how he came to rescue runaways and prostitutes from sex trafficking; and how
he started another non-profit that would suit his needs and those of the target population. The
case illustrates some of the growing pains of the Barnaba Institute, including revenue generation;
reliance on volunteers; and public education about domestic sex trafficking and child prostitution.
The case describes the strategies being used by the organization’s staff and board of directors to
accomplish the organization’s mission and goals. It also addresses barriers to fundraising,
including public distaste for the subject of domestic sex trafficking.


The authors developed this case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling
of the situation. The case, instructor’s manual and synopsis were anonymously peer-reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting in Gatlinburg, TN, October 28-30,
2010. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Marie Rock and John Seeger. Contact person:
Marie Rock, Management Department, Bentley University, 175 Forest Street, Waltham, MA 02452-4705. Phone:
781-891-2157; email: MRock@Bentley.edu.


THE CHILTON CLUB
William Naumes & Clayton Barrows
University of New Hampshire

Case Objective
The Chilton Club case is designed to demonstrate specific problems relating to the operations
and strategy of a women’s club. The case takes place in a private club in Boston, MA. This is a
rather typical “city club” and is faced with the problems of most city clubs. These include
relevancy in a changing demographic and economic environment. General management of the
club has to respond to both internal and external pressures, and the Chilton Club case attempts to
demonstrate the impact of these pressures and responses.
Students are asked to place themselves in the position of the General Manager of the Club. A
major decision involves whether to change the mission of the Club and to admit men, as most,
but not all, women’s clubs have done over the previous twenty or more years.
The case can be used in courses in Private Club Management at the undergraduate level
typically in the junior or senior year. Prerequisite knowledge needed (including other readings to
be assigned) a basic understanding of private clubs, their tax status, and a basic understanding of
the principles of management.

Case Synopsis
Bob Wood, General Manager of the Chilton Club, a not for profit organization, in Boston, MA,
was preparing for a meeting with the Club’s Board of Directors. Revenues had been flat the
previous year, 2009, and he was expected to present a plan of action to overcome this problem.
He was not sure whether the flat revenues were a result of the poor economic conditions or if this
was an indicator of more serious factors.
The Chilton Club was about to celebrate the 100th anniversary of its founding as a women’s club.
The club was founded by a small group of women who were highly placed in the Boston social
establishment, and were headed by the Great Grand Daughter of Paul Revere.
Some of the options Bob were considering proposing to the Board included admitting men as
overnight guests, members, and allowing men to schedule functions at the club. Other options
included increasing membership dues, charging special fees for renovations or the Centennial
celebration, increasing the number of members, expanding the number of hours and days of full
operation of the club, as well as extend guest rights to affiliated clubs in other cities. Most of
these would require Board, or full membership approval.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructors’ manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting. © 2010 by William Naumes and
Clayton Barrows. Contact person: William Naumes, Whittemore School of Business & Economics, University of
New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, 603-862-2618, bill.naumes@unh.edu


Production & Operations

CITY OF GRAND RAPIDS: LEAN TIMES CALL FOR LEAN MEASURES
Lisa Eshbach, Ferris State University

Case Objective
The city of Grand Rapids, MI has experienced a decrease in funding over time however, the
recent substantial decline in the State of Michigan’s funding has proven extremely difficult. The
dearth of funding has resulted in a $28 million deficit and a prioritizing of any cost saving
program. The case discusses the improvements and challenges associated with implementing
Administrative Lean in the City of Grand Rapids. The city deputy manager needs to discover
“How can he effectively develop and deploy the lean policy?” Additionally, he needs to answer
the question of “How can he get individuals extensively involved in the development,
implementation and sustaining of the change management process?” These would be the
operations management and leadership issues. The city’s core issues of improving process
efficiencies while at the same time monitoring the employee and customer satisfaction levels will
also be addressed with designing and implementing a multi-faceted measurement system. This is
the strategic management issue. The case was written for business school undergraduate and
graduate level courses in operations management, strategic management or leadership.

Case Synopsis
Eric DeLong became the Deputy City Manager of Grand Rapids in 1999. The city of Grand
Rapids is the second largest city in Michigan located on the western side of the state. The city
body is comprised of three wards totaling 45 square miles and has a municipality of 200,000
people. It employs approximately 1500 service people. DeLong was appointed as the head of a
lean team for the implementation program that began in September, 2005. The lean team
successfully applied and implemented projects using some basic lean tools. Despite the
documented savings and accolades received, DeLong is faced with multiple situations that could
hamper the lean implementation momentum and sustainability long-term. The employees are
hesitant to participate in a management program because they perceive it as the first step toward
additional layoffs. The residents viewed city workers as overpaid employees and unable to add
value to typical city services while regaling in their expensive benefit package. The Board of
Commissioners expects a continued rate of similar/improved savings as well as a faster
implementation of them to assist in alleviating the $28 million deficit. Unsurprisingly, DeLong’s
decisions about these issues will be faced with intense scrutiny.


The author developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, Edgewater Hotel & Conference
Center, October 28-30, 2010. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Lisa Eshbach. Contact
person: Lisa Eshbach, College of Business, Ferris State University, 119 South Street – BUS212, Big Rapids, MI
49307, 248-910-2825, eshbacl@ferris.edu


Embraer
Luis Dambra & Julio Sánchez Loppacher
IAE Business School - Austral University

Case Objective
This case may be used for MBA programs and executive education courses, including
subjects such as Innovation strategy, new product development, management of technology.

Case Synopsis
In 2009, Brazilian company Embraer was a leader in the aeronautic industry, in the regional
jet market. Since 1969 there was developed a coherent strategy designing and building airplanes to
civilian and military market with a clear goal to export products. Started with airplanes with capacity
to 12 seats, plane. In the military market Embraer in 1978 developed with a big success a trainer
airplane “Tucano”, exported a lot of planes to UK and Egypt, two years later in 1980 started develop
an 30 passengers. In 1987 started develop of Embraer EMB 145 a plane with 50 seats. In 1994
Brazilian government sold the company but it keep gold stock.
The EMB 145 was a success plane with more than 1000 sold planes to many countries, but to
grow up Embraer developed a new segment of market 70/130 seats planes developing in 1999 a new
plane E170/190. At the same time was necessary expanding their global vision then Embraer in 2000
open facilities to build planes in China, and in 2002 entered in a new market “executive planes”, with
a derivative project named Legacy from the ERJ 135 plane.
The company in 2008, had 17400 employees and had sales for 6335 million u$s 70 % in
commercial market, 13 % executive market and 17 % government; exporting 45 % to EUA, 17%
Europe. But in 2009 with world crisis the Embraer`s backlog fell, because disappear the market to the
old family planes ERJ 145 and increased the competence in the 70/120 seats tier, from companies like
Airbus, Boeing, Bombardier, Alenia, new competitor like Mitsubishi, and a new tier was opened
120/150 seats planes
Also from technology point of view there were a lot of changes, for example, new material
technology like carbon fiber to replace aluminum, new technologies in the engines to reduce the CO2
emission, with three new concepts from main suppliers of engines: GTF technology by Pratt &
Witney, TechXecore by General Electric and open rotor technology by Rolls Royce, and last but no
least new technologies to develop the aircraft changing the way to do engineering.
The case presents the evolution of Embraer and presents this scenario, with a big competence
in the market and new revolutionary technologies, the high management of Embraer must to make a
lot of decisions: would go to 120/150 market or keep in the 70/120 market? Would keep the executive
effort or forget it? What kind of engine technology should adopt? Should increase use of carbon fiber
or wait? How much time they have to make a decision?


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective
handling of the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and
accepted by the North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 28- 30,
2010, Gatlinburg, Tenessee, USA. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Luis Dambra
and Julio Sánchez oppacher. Contact person: Luis Dambra, IAE Business School, Austral University- Mariano
Acosta s/n Ruta Nac. 8 (B1629 WWA) Pilar – Buenos Aires - Argentina, ldambra@iae.edu.ar.


GEORGIE’S CONSIGNMENT SHOP: INVENTORY AND CRM PRACTICES
Mariel Eben
Grand Valley State University
Special thanks to Thu Duong, David LaFleur and Ruth Shira

Case Objective
The case focuses more on internal business practices, and the practicality of technology or
system implementation in individual firms, than it does on a cost decision or break-even analysis.
While cost is always a factor, here it is merely an element of the final decision. Accordingly,
financial documents have not been included in order to encourage students to think more deeply
about the ''soft'' elements of the case. Prices of the potential programs Georgie is considering will
have a relatively small impact on her bottom line; thus, the case has been designed to help
students analyze business processes and think critically and creatively about their improvement.
1. Evaluate inventory management systems in specialty stores and compare those with
Georgie's Consignment Shop's time tested methods.
2. Review the advantages and disadvantages of CRM technology in small businesses, and
then apply those consequences (good or bad) to Georgie's Consignment Shop.
3. Critique service priorities in resale shops and Georgie's Consignment Shop's adherence.
4. Conceptualize the integration of a new system for Georgie's inventory management, and
assess the potential benefits it presents.

Case Synopsis
Georgie Roth opened Georgie’s Consignment Shop in 1981, in Ada, Michigan. It attracts
shoppers and consigners from across West Michigan, and is considered one of the best
consignment shops in the area for its quality, charm, and customer service. In 2009, it had
revenues of $700,000 and paid approximately one-half of its revenues to consignors.
In order to determine if new technology could provide a more sustainable and lasting competitive
advantage to the company, Georgie's Consignment Shop needs to evaluate its current inventory
management system as well as its legacy customer records cards. Brenda Cain, Georgie's sister
and the shop's office manager considers the human and financial capital involved in a system
implementation, and prepares to present her findings to Georgie. While the cost may seem
insignificant in comparison to the shop's revenues, she struggles with the idea of changing a
system that is generally functional in its current processes.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting. All rights are reserved to the authors
and NACRA. © 2010 by Mariel Eben. Contact person: Mariel Eben, Seidman College of Business, Grand Valley
State University- 401 W. Fulton Drive, Grand Rapids, MI 49504, 616-443-5074, ebenm@mail.gvsu.edu


Keen on Lean: Lean Manufacturing at Daktronics, Inc.

Nancy M. Levenburg

Grand Valley State University

Case Objective

The world's largest supplier of large screen video displays, electronic scoreboards, LED text and graphics displays and related control systems, sedrvices and products has embarked on a journey to implement lean manufacturing techniques in its facilities. The firm's goal was to eliminate waste, delivering products to customers in a timely manner while maintaining minimal inventory and eliminating non-value-added tasks. The case is written to provide the framework for evaluating the initiative within the context of business and operations strategy. Students gain an overview of the digital display industry, the company's business model and strategies, and the manufacturing environment in which the lean conversion took place.

Specific case objectives include: (1) Assess the results obtained from the lean conversion; (2) Understand the organizational implications associated with transitioning to lean manufacturing; and (3) Analyze the appropriateness of planning processes used in a course in which students focus on operations management, lean operations, and manufacturing planning and control. It would be useful in upper-level undergraduate Operations Management or Operations Strategy courses.


Case Synopsis

For over forty years, Daktronics, Inc. has been one of the world's leading suppliers of electronic scoreboard,large electronic display systems, digital messaging solutions, software and services for sports venues, commercialand transportation applications. After decades of producing its products using a batch system, the $300 million companymade a formal decision to pursue lean manufacturing in February, 2006. The lean initiative took on even greater importance,due to sluggishness in the U.S. economy and slowed sales in 2009. Now in 2010, four years after the lean project's initial launch, readers are asked, how successful has the lean conversion been, including the transition from a batch system to a high mix, flow line system?

By using clues within the case and detailed exhibits, the case provides a rich opportunity for readers to trace and evaluate an original equipment manufacturer's (OEM) lean journey. Ultimately, they should be able to answer questions, such as: What kinds of things did Daktronics appear to do correctly? What recommendations might follow from their experience for other OEMs that seek to implement lean manufacturing?


The author developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of the situation. The case, instructor's manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 28-30, 2010, Gatlinburg, TN. All rights are reserved to the author and NACRA. © 2010 by Nancy M. Levenburg. Contact person: Nancy M. Levenburg, Seidman College of Business, Grand Valley State University, 441-C DeVos Center, 401 W. Fulton Street, Grand Rapids, MI 49504, 616-331-7475, levenbun@gvsu.edu.


Rethinking Distribution Logistics at VASA, Pilkington
Julio Sánchez Loppacher & Marcelo Pancotto
IAE Business School – Austral University

Case Objective
This case can be used in MBA courses addressing processes and/or logistics
management analysis as well as in executive or specialization programs dealing with Process
Management and Capacity Analysis, Supply Chain Management, Service Management and
Operations Strategy.

Case Synopsis
The company, a Latin American subsidiary of a global group, was the result of a jointventure
between two of the five leading companies in the glass business (NSG-Pilkington and
St Gobain). It had almost total control over the local market with 88 percent of market share,
and had grown steadily over the last 60 years. Its historical positioning, based on a full range
of products and a high level of service (delivery in due time and manner), would enable it to
consolidate its leadership in the near future.
However, a strong recovery of the local and world economy at the beginning of 2000
had had a big impact on the growth of two key sectors of the glass industry: the construction
and the automobile sector. This rapid growth had caused local shortages due to limited
installed capacity at regional level. In addition, a strong trend towards atomization of
customers, who were distributed all over the country, had led to a progressive deterioration of
the delivery service, which was handled by two small-medium sized independent
transportation companies.
After doing business with these transportation companies for over 25 years, the case
poses the question of how to reverse an extremely low level of delivery service: customers
who complained about unpunctuality, late deliveries to distributors premises, transportation
companies that held VASA responsible for these delays and an increasingly declining
relationship with transportation companies. To this end, VASA director evaluates the
following options: taking total control of distribution to customers by developing VASA’ own
delivery service or reversing the situation with transportation companies by demanding a
higher level of service. Another alternative is to replace these companies partially or totally
and substitute them for more sophisticated logistics service providers.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective
handling of the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and
accepted by the North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 28- 30,
2010, Gatlinburg, Tenessee, USA. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Julio Sánchez
Loppacher and Marcelo Pancotto. Contact person: Marcelo Pancotto, IAE Business School, Austral University-
Mariano Acosta s/n Ruta Nac. 8 (B1629 WWA) Pilar – Buenos Aires - Argentina, mpancotto@iae.edu.ar.


UP, UP, & AWAY! EVENT PLANNING AND PRODUCTION IN LAS VEGAS
Kathleen B. Nelson, Daniel Nelson, & Cheri A. Young
University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Case Objective
Application of theories, concepts, and ideas from human resources management, services
management, and crisis management during the on-site production of a special event like the
World Cup or the opening of a new mall may be very different from that of an ongoing
business given the unique nature of events. For example, the size of the workforce explodes
at the time of an event to include many paid staff, hundreds of volunteers, and multiple
contractors such as food vendors and cleaning crews. Little time is available for training,
decision making occurs on the run, and the event is over before anyone can think about
performance appraisals. Events are characterized by a fast pace, high stress levels and many
workers fatigued by the set-up period before the event audience arrives to add yet another
level of pressure. Hence, every event is like the opening night of a Broadway Show—with
only one chance to get it right. Because features of events may be quite different from
organizations with a permanent workforce, this case was written to have students (1) assess
the potential risk and crisis management issues pertaining to a particular event and compile
suggestions for closing gaps and creating contingency plans; (2) differentiate managing
human resources for an event versus for a permanently staffed ongoing organization, and
develop strategies and tactics for working with temporary labor (e.g., vendors/suppliers,
independent contractors) for a single event; and (3) identify event stakeholders and manage
the relationship between the stakeholders and the event producer.

Case Synopsis
Ben Malcolm and his Las Vegas-based meetings, entertainment and special events production
company, Ben Malcolm Productions (BMP), was producing “Up, Up & Away!”, a dealer
appreciation event for Forum Tires that would have 350 dealers and major distributors (and
their guests) of Forum Tire products in attendance. The event was taking place that evening
on the driving range of the golf course at the Desert Inn, a hotel casino resort with 715 rooms.
Nine months of critical thinking, planning and collaborative effort among the corporate
officers of Forum Tires, the Event Management Department staff at the Desert Inn, and the
staff of BMP led to layouts, designs, and ideas formulated. However, on the day of the event
the tent company that Malcolm contracted drove a three foot stake through a water line on the
golf course, creating a pool of mud at the entrance to the main tent for the event. To make
matters worse, the catering department of the Desert Inn then got a 1.5 ton forklift loaded
with banquet tables stuck in the mud which could not be driven out under its own power. As
a result, preparation for the event was now three hours and 40 minutes behind schedule with
only 5.5 hours remaining before the start of the event.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective
handling of the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and
accepted by the North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, The Edgewater
Hotel & Conference Center, Gaitlanburg, Tennessee, October 28-30, 2010. All rights are reserved to the authors
and NACRA. © 2010 by Kathleen B. Nelson, Daniel Nelson, and Cheri A. Young. Contact person: Cheri A.
Young, College of Hotel Administration, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Box
456021, Las Vegas, NV 89154-6021, 702-895-4124, cheri.young@unlv.edu


Social & Environmental Entrepreneurship

A Journey from Lumber to Bioenergy: DelTech Manufacturing of the BID Group, British Columbia
Robert J. Ellis and Robbin Derry
University of Lethbridge

Case Objective
This case describes the challenges of a successful entrepreneurial company confronting very
trying economic circumstances. It would be appropriate for undergraduate and graduate courses in
entrepreneurship or policy. In any of these courses, it is best positioned in a class on business and
environmental sustainability or product innovation. It could therefore also be used as an integrative case
near the end of either type of course as it spans issues of entrepreneurial growth,corporate social
responsibility and environmental sustainability. Although the context of this case is the forest industry of
British Columbia, the issues that confront the BID Group and the forest industry are representative of the
challenges faced by many primary industries and their suppliers.
The teaching objectives of the case include:
1. To examine approaches that this company could take as it attempts to expand beyond its
traditional markets in the forestry industry.
2. To evaluate the relationship between strategy and corporate social responsibility, and specifically,
environmental sustainability and the forest industry.
3. To develop a strategy and implementation plan for this company in the field of bioenergy.

Case Synopsis
This case describes a family-owned, entrepreneurial group of companies located in northern
British Columbia, whose fortunes have been tied to the forestry industry for decades. In May, 2009, Keith
Spencer, Director of Operations of DelTech Manufacturing Inc. was worrying about the future of his
company. DelTech had a long history of success as an equipment supplier for the forestry industry in
British Columbia, but that segment of the business had suffered a precipitous decline, reflecting the sorry
state of the industry. DelTech had begun to develop bioenergy systems for the forestry industry
beginning in the early 1990s and had invested millions in new facilities, employee training, and research
and development. DelTech had experienced considerable success installing systems for the forest
industry, but now that business was suffering badly as well. DelTech was determined to expand the
markets for its bioenergy systems, and saw immense potential in doing so, but its efforts to date had met
with little success against the large competitors that dominated the energy market.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 28-30, 2010, Gaitlinburg,
TN. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. @ 2010 by Robert J. Ellis and Robbin Derry. Contact
person: Robbin Derry, University of Lethbridge, 10707 100 Ave, Edmonton, Alberta, T5J 3M1, Canada. 780-424-
0425 ex 8. robbin.derry@uleth.ca.


CREDIAMIGO: PARTNERING WITH VIVACRED?
Frédéric Lavoie, HEC Montréal
Emmanuel Raufflet (faculty supervisor), HEC Montréal

Case Objective
The case presents the dilemma to which is confronted Crediamigo, a large Brazilian
microfinance institution in Brazil Northeast, as its high management needs to decide whether
they should enter the Rio de Janeiro market creating a new local institution or partnering with
VivaCred, a local microcredit NGO. The partnership option would facilitate Crediamigo’s access
to Rio’s huge untapped market and provide the program with the experience and positioning to
eventually replicate its successful model to other Brazilian regions. However, the potential
complications were significant. The “Greenfield” option would avoid the typical organizational
culture clash between partners but make Crediamigo’s entry on the market more troublesome.
The case is designed for business school undergraduate and graduate courses in social
entrepreneurship and social innovation (strategic decision-making), or in strategy or strategic
management (decision-making situation related to poverty alleviation in an emerging country).

Case Synopsis
Marcelo Azevedo, Crediamigo Urban microfinance manager, had to decide whether the
expansion of Crediamigo in Rio de Janeiro should take place by partnering with VivaCred, a
small microcredit NGO operating in Rio de Janeiro slums for 11 years. Maybe it was simpler to
create a new organization shaped at Crediamigo’s image. Azevedo knew that creating a new
institution would permit to avoid any cultural clash possibly resulting from partnering an already
existing microcredit NGO, such as VivaCred. Azevedo was also informed of VivaCred’s
numerous organizational weaknesses. Creating a new entity would ensure that Crediamigo did
not inherit VivaCred’s numerous vices. However, Azevedo also recalled the challenges that
Crediamigo would probably face in Rio, should the program enter the market alone. The
population’s access to credit in Rio was much greater than it was in the Northeast. Since Banco
do Nordeste was not known in Rio, entering the market without a local partner could be risky.
How long would it last for the local population to trust Crediamigo program? Azevedo also
expected Crediamigo’s group-lending methodology to face resistance from Southeasterners,
having access to less constringent individual lending microcredit from other institutions. A
partnership with VivaCred would certainly ease the creation of lending groups and facilitate
Crediamigo’s access to Rio’s huge untapped market through the provision of their client base
and Crediamigo’s association with a locally-known brand. Marcelo Azevedo, jointly with the
other members of the implementation team, needed to make a decision within the next month.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, Edgewater Hotel & Conference
Center, October 28-30, 2010. All rights are reserved to the author and NACRA. © 2010 by Frédéric Lavoie. Contact
person: Frédéric Lavoie, HEC Montréal, 3333 chemin de la Côte-Sainte-Catherine, Montréal, QC, Canada, H3T
2A7, 514-340-6000 #2074, frederic.3.lavoie@hec.ca


DePAUL INDUSTRIES: FUNDING FUTURE GROWTH
Silvia Dorado, University of Rhode Island
Emmanuel Raufflet, HEC Montréal
Dave Shaffer, DePaul Industries

Case Objective
After using this case, students will have gained a better understanding of (1) the meanings and
implications of decision making in social enterprises and hybrid organizations; (2) the challenges
of funding growth and sustained investment for organizations interested in advancing social
goals; and (3) been exposed to emergent/innovative forms of funding for non-for-profit
organizations.

Case Synopsis
This case is based on the experience of Dave Shaffer, CEO of DePaul, the largest employer of
persons with disabilities in Oregon as he was preparing a discussion on the possibility of creating
a L3C (Low-profit Limited Liability Company). A new approach, L3C was designed to help
low-profit organizations to access equity investment from donors (so call program-related
investments) and even private investors. As of 2009-2010, While DePaul’s growth prospects
were promising, the non-for-profit organization faced severe financial bottlenecks which may
impede the realization if its expansion. This case presents the funding options as well as the
consideration the CEO of this organization had in mind while preparing a discussion with the
Board on a brand-new form of funding for Non-for-profit on which established knowledge was
still limited. This strategic discussion was related to considering how any one decision
influences the interests of diverse stakeholders using an extreme case in which those interests
and confounded and at times conflicting (profit and social service).


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, Gatlinburg, TN, October 28-30,
2010. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by (Contact person) Silvia Dorado, University of
Rhode Island, College of Business Administration, Ballentine Hall 229, Kingston, RI 02881, sdorado@mail.uri.edu;
Emmanuel Raufflet.: Emmanuel Raufflet, HEC Montréal, 3000 chemin de la Côte-Sainte-Catherine, Montréal,
Québec, J3H 2A7, emmanuel.raufflet hec.ca; and Dave Shaffer, DePaul Industries, 4950 NE Martin Luther King Jr
Blvd, Portland, OR 97211 dshaffer@depaulindustries.com,


ENERGY, POVERTY AND THE MARKET: THE CSR STRATEGY OF COELCE IN BRAZIL
Luciano Barin-Cruz & Jonathan B. Colombo
HEC Montreal

Case Objective
This case aims to address the issues of sustainable development and Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR) in emergent countries. More specifically, the case focuses on one of the
major industries in the Sustainable Development (SD) debate (the energy industry) in one of the
so-called BRIC countries (Brazil). Considering the complexity and broad debate about SD and
CSR, this paper seeks to stimulate discussion on two specific topics: strategic CSR and poverty
(and its consequences in terms of development in an emergent country).

Case Synopsis
The case starts in 2006, when Coelce - a subsidiary of the Spanish multinational corporation
Endesa, that provides energy services in Ceará, one of the most socially and environmentally
demanding states in Brazil - faced the following dilemma: How can Coelce be socially and
environmental innovative to conquer new clients and guarantee profitability?
For the last few years, the Innovation Management and Research Projects Department (IMRPD)
has been carrying out important projects that deal with poverty and making the local population
aware of the importance of preserving the local environment. Over the last few weeks, the
IMRPD Manager has been regularly meeting with the Project Leader to discuss how they can
keep on improving Coelce’s contribution to the local economic and social development by
addressing, at the same time, to a social cause (energy access for people in one of the poorest
regions of Brazil), an environmental cause (educate people about the impact of individual acts on
the local environment) and an economical objective (guarantee profitability to the company).
The Project Leader knows that on the one hand, the company understands that the only way to be
profitable and responsible in this region is through a deep engagement of building trust and
partnership with local communities. On the other hand, he also knows that complexes projects
require a long-term approach. To keep the sustainability concept going, the Project Leader
knows that Coelce can either develop new projects or expand its operations. But how can they do
this? How can Coelce be socially and environmentally innovative while obtaining new clients
and remaining profitable?


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of
the situation. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the
North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, Edgewater Hotel and Conference
Center, October 28-30, 2010. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA. © 2010 by Luciano Barin-Cruz and
Jonathan Colombo. Contact person: Luciano Barin-Cruz, HEC Montreal, Édifice Côte-Sainte-Catherine, 3000
chemin de la Côte-Sainte-Catherine, Montréal, Qc, Canada H3T 2A7, 1 (514) 340 1350, luciano.barin-cruz@hec.ca


Good Hotel: Doing Good, Doing Well?

Armand Gilinsiky, Jr. Sonoma State University

S. Noorein Inamdar, San Jose State University

Case Objective
This case can be integrated into a capstone strategic management course at the undergraduate or graduate levels. The case is best suited for applying strategic management theories, concepts and tools to sustainable business practices and to broaden students' understanding of the lodging industry. The case has been tested with undergraduate students in a capstone strategy course as a writing assignment and for group presentations. The case focuses on the growing interest in sustainability by the U.S. lodging industry. Sustainability is characterized as a "game changing megatrend" (Lubin & Esty, 2010, pg. 2) that will affect the survival of all businesses. Adopters can accomplish the following learning objectives: (1) illustrate sustainability as a 'megatrend' that will affect profitability and encompasses sustainable strategies, corporate social responsibility, busienss ethics and cause-related marketing; (2) debate the value of 'green' or 'sustainable' strategies in the lodging industry; (3) analyze and compare the 'triple bottom line' emphasizing 'people, planet and profit' as expanded criteria for measuring success in the areas of economic and environmental and social values; develop and defend recommendations to discontinue, continue, or expand Good Hotel. The instructor's manual asks analysts to debate Good Hotel's generic strategy in the context of industry overcapacity, create strategic group maps, evaluate resources and capabilities, analyze hotel industry performance metrics, and decide how to build on emerging consumer awareness of the desirability for 'green' hotels. Students need to decide if Good Hotel should maintain or change its strategy of "hotel with a conscience." Is Good Hotel doing well? How should the new owners/managers of the Good Hotel proceed to build long-term value for and equity in this brand?

Case Synopsis
Good Hotel in San Francisco was refurbished, re-branded, and opened by Joie de Vivre (JdV), a hotel management company in November 2008. Good Hotel was known in the industry as the first to be branded as a "hotel with a conscience" - encompassing a positive attitude, environmental sensitivity and philanthropy. In April 2010, however, due to the foreclosure and sale of the hotel and two nearby hotel properties from its prior owners to a new management group, JdV's would be ending its hoel management contract for Good Hotel at the end of May 2010. Good Hotel's General Manager, Pam Janusz, was asked to provide a recommendation on whether to continue, expand or discontinue the Good Hotel concept to the new ownership group. In her short time remaining at Good Hotel, Pam was asked by JdV corporate management to evaluate Good Hotel's performance in order to determine its long-term validity. Her decision must be made in light of the economic downturn in general, and the changing competitive dynamics in the tourism and hospitality industry in particular.


The authors developed the case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of the situation. The host organization has provided written permission to disseminate this case for academic purposes. The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer reviewed and accepted by the North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting, October 28-30, 2010, Gatlinburg, TN.. Contact person: Armand Gilinsky, Jr., School of Business and Economics, Sonoma State University, 1801 E. Cotati Avenue, Rohnert Park, CA 94928-3609, (707) 664-2709,  armand.gilinsky@sonoma.edu


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